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Now to begin. — On the top of the snowy hill, in the 
hermitage of the Devadaru grove, the Rishis of yore inter- 
rogated Vyasa, who was seated, rapt in thought. 

^fl -d|-c||< ^2IT^ cKUcM^dl TTTT: ^ 

2. Expound, son of Satyavati ! the law, which is for 
the good of mankind, in the present Kali age; and the 
practice of purification, such as it ought to be. 

Mc^dM Hs?lcMI: ?ffcTWfcTf^TTTT^": 3 

3. Hearing the above saying of the Rishis, (he) the adept 
4n the Veda and the Smriti, and exceedingly bright, like a 
a kindled fire or the sun, who was attended by his pupils, 
said in reply, 

4. "I have not the knowledge of the whole of the truth. 
How can I venture to expound the law ? It is our father 
who should be asked." Thus said Vyasa, the son. 

ddWN-M: TT^f y4dT?l|sI<*>ll>U!: 

TCt U^-UjlMd M-U -M dl aftM *>?) fa?f ^ ^ 

^JIMr^fHHKIcH ^cidl-MdHMdH 

^JhycJT^SI Hc^Jn'cl-tci'^dH ^ 

5. 6, 7. Then all those Rishis, desirous to obtain correct 
law, proceeded, under the lead of the Rishi Vyasa, 

to the Badrika hermitage, (a spot) crowded with various 
trees, beautified by flowers and fruits, diversified by rivers 
and rills, ornamented with holy bathing-places, resonant 
with the voice of beasts and birds, studded with temples, and 
enlivened by the dance and music of Yakshas, Gandharvas 
and Siddas 

*K°U*flH H^lcMI H^H*^ J RIMdH =; 

8 & 9. There, Vyasa, accompanied by the Rishis, by 
putting together both his palms and by cir cum ambulation, 
obeisances and laudatory speeches, paid respects to Parasara, 
the son of Shakti, seated at his ease in the midst of an 
assemblage of Rishis, and surrounded by a host of Munis 
of the highest rank. 

■^^> Ox =■- .- ■■■ — * | 

10. Now, with a gladdened heart, the great Muni Parasara, pre-eminent 

among Munis, thus spoke without rising 

from his seat, " Tell (me) about your safe arrival." 

^FR^^R^T dldMill^Jl Wt cT^T 

3RTT ^ HMo|| ^FTT ^TTfWT <=M*MmWSTT \R 

^lldldMI^ £kldl^l^c4^|-d%^~ ^T 

chl^MH^dl&cT ?T2TT MMdfll^: 

11 to 15. Vyasa having said " (All are) well," thus interrogated him : 

" If thou art aware of my reverence (for thee), or from 
affection, thou affectionate to persons revering thee ! 
expound the law to me, for I am, father, an object of 
kindness to thee. The rules of law expounded by Manu have 
been heard by me, and those by Vasishtha and by Kasyapa, 
and by Garga and by Gautama and by Usanas ; the laws of 
Atri and Vishnu and Samvarta and Daksha and Angira and 
Shatatapa and Harita and Yajnavalkya, and Katyayana and 

Prachetas and Apastamba ; and the laws of Shankha and 

TV$ ^FTT : fTcT ^fTcTT: TV$ TET: ^eft ^\ ?& 

16. " All these (laws) have been heard (by me as they were) 
expounded by thee ; they embody the sense of the veda ; 
(they) have not been forgotten by me. (They are) the laws 

for the four ages, the Krita, the Treta, and the rest, forming 
parts of this Manvantara. 

^d^llHfM "5RTFTT #q t| 4<*1 fa ^ : ^ 

17. " All laws arose in the Krita age ; all have vanished 
in the Kali age. Expound a part of the rules of conduct fit 
for the four castes, such as are common (to all) . 

Wf? y4w^M^*KH ^Tef^r fa <kKld 

18 & 19. " Likewise, thou proficient in the nature of law, 
expound in detail, both in its manifest and in its recondite 
forms, the law to be followed by those among all the four 
castes who are skilled in the knowledge of law. " 

At the end of the words of Vyasa, Parasara the chief 

of Munis, in detail expounds the law (as) settled, both in the 

manifest and in the recondite forms. 

" Listen, my son, and let the Munis also hear." 

20. " In each Kalpa (the deities) Brahma and "Vishnu and Shiva, and the 
expounders of the Veda, the Smrithis invariably perish, and are born 
again . 

cT^^TNpTTfcT TFT: ^eqF?f^cft ^ 

21. " The author of the Veda there is none ; (he) the four- 
faced (God) , at each succeeding revolution of a Kalpa, re- 
calls to mind the Veda ; and so does Manu remember the 

law (at each succeeding revolution of a Kalpa) . 

22. " In conformity to the character of the age, the rules 
of law (suitable) for men differ from age to age. The rules 
for the Krita differ from the Treta rules ; the Dvapara laws 
are not identical with the Kali rules. 

cN: tR ^rg^r %?TFTT ^MH^Md 

23. " Self-mortification is the rule in the Krita age ; 
knowledge is said (to be the same) in the Treta ; in the 
Dvapara, (they) say sacrifice (to the gods to be) the sole 

(rule) ; and charity alone in the Kali age. 

24. " For the Krita are suited the laws of Manu ; for the Treta, those 
by Gautama (are) prescribed ; for the Dvapara those by Shank and 
Likhita ; for the Kali, those by Parasara are prescribed. 

C-^^i <+d"M^I ^dMl' WHHcU^ld 

25. " In the Krita, one should quit a country itself ; one 
should quit a village in the Treta ; in the Dvapara (one 
should shun) only the particular family ; but in the Kali, one 
should shun the perpetrator alone (of an offence) . 

^nft ccnhkiai-Wi wfcT <+4-m i ^ 

26. " In the Krita sin is incurred by one who converses 
(with a sinner) ; in the Treta by one who touches (the sinful 

man) ; in the Dvapara by taking the sinner's food ; in the 
Kali by a (sinful) act (alone) . 

^rT d I H-> I Pel 4> : WT: %?TPTf ^^tff%: 

27. "A curse in the Krita takes effect the moment it is 
littered ; in the Treta (it does so) in ten days' time ; in the 
Dvapara, in the course of a single month ; in the Kali, how- 
ever, it takes a year. 

28. *' In the Krita (the donor himself) comes up to (the 
donee) and makes the gift ; in each succeeding Treta age, 
(the donee) is invited and the gift is made ; in the Dvapara, 

the gift is made to one who asks for it ; in the Kali, how- 
ever, gifts are made in exchange for service done. 

29. " Excellent is the gift, made on coming to the donee's 

side ; the gift after invitation is of the middling kind ; gift 

to a suitor is of a low character ; but gift for service (rendered) is 

fruitless . 

30 & 31. "Religion has been overthrown by irreligion ; 
and truth indeed by that which is false ; kings have been 
overpowered by thieves ; males have been subdued by 
females ; the worship of fire is dying out ; respect to 
superiors is ceasing to be seen ; and maidens are becoming 
mothers : this is what invariably happens in the age of 

32. ' ' Life in the Krita has its seat in the bones ; in the 
Treta it has its seat in the flesh ; in the Dvapara the blood 
is the seat of life ; in the Kali, however, life is dependent 
upon food and the like. 

33. " Special are the rules of conduct for each cyclical 
age ; and the regenerate castes are guided by the rules that 
govern the age ; no censure (therefore) can attach to them ; 
for the regenerates conform to the spirit of the age." 

M £H tld d HH <=H H 4rH c^N<=f! fa of: 

c c 

34. The saints have explained what other capabilities 

are special for each particular age. And the expiation pre- 
scribed by Parasara too is practiced (in actual life) . 

^Ht ^FT cT TTFT2--4 ^R H fa fa-H I fa cH 

o o o -o K 

35. " I shall this very day bring to my remembrance the 
whole of the same, und shall propound it to you. Let the 
leaders of the saints (literally the bull-like saints) listen to 
the approved law, which should be followed by a society 
observing the rule of castes."" 

fa Pd d ^I^U^^raTaiNHM ^r ^ 

36. Holy is the work composed by Parasara; it leads . to 
well-being and destroys sins ; properly construed, it settles 
the duties of the Brahman caste, and establishes the religion 
of all the rest. 

37. A blameless life, that fosters righteousness, is what is 
proper for all the four castes. Righteousness turns its back 
to those whose bodies are defiled by a blamable life. 


38. A Brahman, who is given to observe the six duties of 
his caste, who worships the deities and hospitably receives 
the guests ; whose meals consist of what remains after 

(daily) offerings made (on the fire) , has never to suffer from 
misery or want. 

Tt HZTT ^TFT ^rqt #TT ^oMlldr^LMHH 

39. Ablution and prayer, inaudible recitation (of sacred 
words), burnt- offerings, the worship of gods, hospitality to 
guests unexpectedly come, and offerings made in the name 

of the Visvadevam, — these are the six duties to be performed 
every day, 

UHllHl ot^^l-^ ^TSfcTf2T: ^JI^JJH: Yo 

40. When a Brahman has performed the duty of offering to the 
Visvadevam, if an unexpected guest arrives, — be 

he a favourite, be he an object of hate, be he a dunce, be he 
a learned man — he is the very bridge for crossing over to 
the seats of bliss. 


41. He should be considered as a true unexpected guest, 
who has come over from afar, fatigued in body, after the 
performance of the rite for the Visvadevam ; — one arrived 
prior thereto is not an unexpected guest. 

"^ «+> J J I Afl -UP H Id l«t 4H Jl^ld ^^T ^T ^T 

M U c^H I J I dl M ^H It) iM l< fd f«l W-ld X^ 

42. Never should one belonging to the selfsame village 

be accepted as an unexpected guest. His name atithi (lit., 
having no date fixed) arises from the fact of his having arrived 

43. To an unexpected guest arrived at the house, one 
should address words of welcome ; and he should be honor 
ed with the offer of a seat, and of water for washing his 
feet . 

44. The householder should gladden the guest by showing 
him respect, by the offer of food accompanied with pleasant 
words ;" A and by following him (for some little distance), 
when he departs (from the house of the host) . 

WfcfN 4^-W JJ 1 4M) J I £ I dJ Id fa c| del 

45. Where a guest goes back from a person's house, 

' — his hope of a welcome unfulfilled, — the forefathers of the 
householder do not eat, during the period of ten years and 
five . 

46. Where a guest is disappointed in his hopes — useless 
are the burnt-offerings made by the host, although he may 
burn a thousand loads of wood and a hundred jars of ghee. 

tt#[% g|im2is«H Trm% inr^M^HH, 

47. The seed should be sown on excellent soil ; wealth 
should be bestowed on a worthy recipient ; for what is sown 
on excellent soil, — what is bestowed on a worthy recipient — 
is never lost, 

^T T7^^T3P=rC% tt T^vzrrq spf 7T2JT 

48. (A guest) should not be asked his family or his clan ; 
[Lit., his gotra] he should not be questioned 

as to learning or knowledge. [But the host] should take 

him to be a god himself ; for, in him are united all the gods. 

^fw: <hqmi fsrtrt ww^nfcTfcrf^f an 

49. Fresh is a Brahman who lives a strictly religious 

life ; and similarly fresh is an unexpected guest ; (and also) 
he who delights in a constant study of the Veda ; these 
three are fresh from day to day. 

[By 'fresh' seems to be meant that ' one never should weary of 
them ; these three should be always acceptable and welcome'.] 

50. At the hour of the offering for the Visvadevam, if a 
religious mendicant arrives at the house — one should take 
a portion from the intended offering to the visvadevas, — 
should give it as alms, and as a parting gift. [Lit. should 
dismiss the mendicant, having given the alms.] 

51. The religious mendicant, and the religious student, 
these two are the lords of the food that has been cooked. 
Giving them no food, and eating himself, one should observe 
(as a penance) the lunar fast. 

* Lit. with pleasant enquiries, I. e., whether any more food would be 
welcome to the guest, and so forth. 

[The 'lunar fast, ' called the * Chandrayana, ' consists in the re- 
duction of a mouthful every succeeding day, till on the day of the 
full moon the meal is reduced to a single mouthful.] 

<^ii5j fwTf^i MRon^^irUuH 

52. To the mendicant and the student, one should give 
three alms in all ; then he may give at his option as much 
as his wealth permits. 

^TfcT ^% ^Tet <£ll^' e^JIr^H^dH 

53. He should pour water on the mendicant's palm ; then 
he should place the alms upon his hand ; and water again. 
The alms so given equal the Meru in bulk ; the water is 
comparable to the ocean itself. 

[The meaning is : Such alms are as efficacious in point of religious 
merit as if he had given a quantity equal in bulk to the mountain 
Meru, — the golden mountain on the top of which is situated Indra's 
heaven . ] 


~\ * p. * p- "\ 

^ TaiMHMI^Idd^HI-d' ^T fcMI-Mc! )& 

54. If an unexpected guest has got an umbrella and a 
horse ; he should be welcomed without hesitation ; (for by 
doing so) the householder goes to the place of Indra, where 
he mounts on elephants and enjoys 

riches . 

55. If a fault be committed in performing the rite for 

the Visvadevam, the fault is repaired by (proper hospitality 
to) a religious mendicant ; if a fault, however, be committed 
with regard to that hospitality, it is not repaired by the rite 
for the Visvadevam. 

56. The regenerate men who eat their meals, not having 
performed the rite for the Visvadevam, are born as crows ; 
their food by no means should be partaken. 


57. Those despicable members of the regenerate caste, who eat their 
meals, not having performed the rite for the Visvadevam — they all 
should be taken as abortive beings and they fall into an impure hell. 

♦♦♦ -o 

58. Those who do not perform the rite for the Visvadevam, 
or the rite of hospitably receiving guests, — they all are 
destined to go to hell, and in the next existence are born as 
crows . 


♦ --^ 

59. To eat one's meals with his head wrapped round, or 

with his face towards the south, or with his hand on his left 

foot, or while he is standing up — is to imitate the manners 

of the Rakshasa class of beings. 



ct TTFT c^^MI ^TWTbUcTl 1% ^- £o 

~p — ^=r~ —rrriT^rnrT^nr ~n=r tt * 

60. The king must punish the village where brahmanas take alms without 
doing austerities and vedic study as it is a theft. 

61. A king of the Kshatriya caste should arm himself , and have his 
troops ; should protect his people ; should overcome the forces of a 
hostile king ; and rule the State 
in the way prescribed by law. 

62. Whether it be a robber, or a Chandala (the lowest of 
all the castes), or an enemy, or a parricide, — any one arrived 
at the time of the rite for the Visvadevam, is to be welcom- 
ed as a guest, who is like a bridge for crossing over to the 
seats of bliss. 



63. To invest money on interest, to be a jeweller, to tend 
cattle, tillage and trade, — these are declared as occupations 
for the Vaisya caste, 

64. The highest virtue for a Shoodra is to serve the 
members of the regenerate castes. Fruitless for him is 
everything else that he may do. 

65. Salt, honey and oil, curded milk, whey, and milk 

all these are not polluted by the touch of persons of the 

Shoodra caste . Shoodra may sell these to all the castes. 

66. By selling Wine and meat, by consuming prohibited foods, cohabiting 

with prostitutes a shoodra falls from his caste. 


67. By drinking the milk of a tawny cow, by cohabiting 

with a woman of the Brahman caste, by discussing the 

sense of the words of the Veda, a Shoodra becomes a Chandala (Lowest 


♦ ^ 

Here ends the First Chapter of Parasara. 


wz^fcrfwr fsra: +1*1+4 ^r <+>K^d ^ 

1. 2. Now, I shall explain, conformably to what Parasara 
formerly propounded, the law relating to the duties and 
observances prescribed for a householder, in the age of Kali ; 
also the rules of conduct, which, being common to all, 
are suited to the four castes and stages of life, so far as they 
are able to follow. 

A Brahman who regularly performs the six ceremonies, 
may also betake himself to agriculture. 

[The six ceremonies have been enumerated in ch. I., S'loka 39. 
Madhava says that the causal form ' karayet, ' in connection with the 

practice of agriculture allowed in the Kali to the priestly class, has 
a special meaning : — he says that a Brahmana must employ plough- 
men of the lower caste in carrying on his agricultural operations ; he 
is not permitted himself to hold the plough.] 

3. An ox that is hungry, or thirsty, or fatigued, should 
not be harnessed (to a plough) . A bull wanting in a limb, 
or diseased, or impotent, should not, by a Brahman, be made 
to work. 

TfsRT^ ^ cfl d <■ ?JH TFTC N-Uddl^dH 

4. An able-bodied bull, free from disease, well-fed and 
hearty, and not impotent, should be made to work for 
half the day. Then should one give the bull a wash. 

5. Then the Brahman should perform the ceremony of 
inaudibly reciting the sacred word, the worship of gods, 

the offering on the fire ; and likewise should he practice the 
study of the sacred works. Thereafter should he feed one 
or two or three or four religious mendicants of the Brahman 

[The religious mendicants, called the ' Snatakas ' in the original, 
are said by Madhava to be of nine classes.] 

^5PT ^ rT9TT i^T ^F%I ^oHHfarl: 

6. With the paddy cultivated by himself, or acquired 
from a field cultivated on his behalf, he should offer the five 
sacrifices (enjoined in the works on Smriti) ; and should 
likewise be engaged in celebrating the sacrificial rites, such 
as the Veda prescribes. 

[The five sacrifices are mentioned by Manu in eh. 3, si. 70.] 

7. Sesum seeds, or milk, or honey, or butter, should 

never be sold ; they may be bartered for equal quantities of 
paddy. The sale of grass or wood, or the like, is, for a 
Brahman, a similar means of living. 

dl^-UISIo^rN c f>-MF-d-H^I<l4HIJ4<MI<d. 

8. What sin a fisherman incurs in the course of one 

full year, — the same is incurred by the driver of a plough- 
share made of iron in the course of a single day. 

9. A hunter who makes his living by killing beasts ; 

one who lives by ensnaring them ; a fisherman and a fowler ; 
as also an agriculturist who makes no gifts (of paddy) : — 
all these five incur the same identical sin. 

10. By cutting trees, by rending the earth, and by 
Destroying insects and worms, what sin is incurred by a tiller 
of the soil is removed by the sacrifice on the threshing- 
floor . 

[The sacrifice on the threshing floor consists of gifts of paddy at 
that place . ] 

^ H ^rTf^TTfcT'Eqt <in?IHc1HMMId: ^ 

11. He who refrains from making gifts to Brahmans, 
when he stands at the foot of the heaped-up paddy, is a 
thief ; he is the most wicked of all possible sinners ; he 
should be proclaimed as a Brahman-killer. 

12. By making a gift of one-sixth part to the sovereign 

of the land, one twenty-first for the sake of the gods, and 
one-thirtieth to the Brahman caste, one is freed from all 
sins . 

fay KM f^l<*> *qFf ^c[q|L|; WT^\ 

13. A Kshatriya, likewise, may practice tillage, honoring 

the gods and the Brahman caste. A 24. For those who died in the course 

of doing service Vaisya or Shoodra 

should always take to agriculture, practice arts, and follow 

trade . 

14. Abandoning the service of the regenerate castes, 
the Shoodras who betake to improper occupations become 
short-lived beings, and undoubtedly go to hell. 

^d-illlHfLI cKIMliHyrcf: TFTTcFT: & 

15. This is the eternal rule of life for all the four castes. 
Here ends the Second Chapter of the Institutes of Parasara. 

^fcT Mki^hi y4*Mn2i fg^fpqfrs*czirq: 



Impurity caused by birth and death: 

w^= ^tRs ycf^-mlH ^FFt TOT cT2TT 

f^T^Rr T[vzrf^T WT^TTT: lld^d^h ^ 

1. Now I shall speak of the term of impurity resulting 
on the occurrence of a birth, or a death. Brahmans in 
three days become pure again, when a relative has died, or 
has been born. 

"?R: ^TCTrfcT HI^H M-tl^Koi-41 ^TSTT 3 

2. A Kshatriya recovers purity in twelve days ; a Vaisya, 

when fifteen days have passed ; a Shoodra, after the lapse of a 
month ; this is conformable to what Parasara has said. 

3. So far as the performance of worship is concerned, 

a Brahman's corporeal frame is (always) held in purity. 

In the case of pollution by a birth, it is allowable to touch 

the body of a Brahman who has been polluted by such a 

cause . 

[Madhava says that the word * worship, ' upasana in the original, is 

meant for ' the daily prayers and the burnt-offerings. ' The whole 

text means that a relative's birth or death does not so far ill effect 


Brahman with impurity- as to unfit him for performing his daily 

worship ; and on the birth of a relative to a Brahman, he does not 

become impure to the extent of being unfit to be touched.] 

4. On the occasion of a birth, a Brahman recovers purity 
in ten days ; a Kshatriya does so in twelve days ; a vaishya 
at the expiry of fifteen days ; and the purification of a 
Shoodra takes a month. 

[Madhava says that this rule applies to the case where a Sapinda 
has been born ; while the rule of three days applies where a Sama- 
nodaka, a more distant relative than a Sapinda, has been born.] 

5. A Brahman who has studied the Veda, and likewise 
keeps the sacred household fire, is restored to purity in a 
single day ; he who has the knowledge of the Veda alone 
will recover purity in three days ; while he who is without 
either the Veda or the fire, will remain impure till ten 
days are over. 

6. A Brahman who has never received the purificatory 

rites prescribed from the day of birth, who neglects to 

perform the threefold daily prayers (sandhya) , who is a Brahman 

in name alone, — must observe ten days of impurity on account of a 

birth . 


^-H"MPM fcN-dl ^(^m doHd<*> *T%TT V3 

7. If the relatives are sprang from the same progenitor, 
(but of a higher caste) , and from a mother of an inferior 
caste, the above rule of impurity should be followed by 
them, when either a birth or a death has taken place. 

[In translating this shloka, I have followed Madhava ; but the text 
of the Rishi is not in its obvious and natural sense capable of that 
interpretation. ] 

8 . The aforesaid impurity extends as far as three ances- 
tors. With the fourth terminates the Sapinda relationship ; 
and so with the fifth born in the same family, (and with the 
rest) . 

9. If the common ancestor be the fourth in ascent, then 
the impurity is for ten days ; in the fifth generation, six 
nights constitute the period thereof ; in the sixth, the purity 
comes back when four days have passed ; but in the seventh, 

in three days' time. 

10. If the death has happened by fall from a precipice, 
or in a country other than the native land, or if it be an 
infant which has died, or an anchorite who had renounced 
the world, — then the relatives are purified in the course of 
that very day. 

11. If information arrives that a person of the same 
family has died in a country other than his native land, — 
then the rule of three days or of one day does not obtain ; 
then the relatives are purified by bathing themselves on that 
very day. 

^IM-Uldl fom: U-Mmi^HMchlRdM 

^Hi^iHnmHPwisFf wr^\ ^ ^ 

12. For infants whose teeth had yet to grow, and for 

such as had an abortive birth, no cremation is ordained, nor 
any term of impurity, nor libation of water. 

13. If the child should perish, while yet in the womb, 

or should be miscarried, — then the woman has an impurity 
of as many days, as would be equal to the number of months 
the child had been in the womb. 

^T rlNHrim'*4>l"C) H I ^\ 4 Hk+lsMI V* 

14. An abortion taking place before four months are past, 

is to be called only an ' oozing ' of the womb (miscarriage) it is 

named a ' fall ' (or abortion) when happening 

in the fifth month, or in the sixth ; thereafter it is called a 

parturition. And then for the period of ten days should the 

impurity last. 

15. If an infant has died after teething, or if he 
has died before the growth of his teeth, but after the 
performance of tonsure upon him, — then for him crema- 
tion is prescribed, and his relatives are impure for full 
three nights. 

16. From birth till the commencement of teething, im- 
purity ceases on the very day of death ; up to tonsure, 
impurity lasts for a single night ; it lasts three nights until 
the investiture with the sacred thread ; thenceforward, the 
term of impurity is full ten nights. 

17. A person in his pupilage, and those in whose house 
offerings are regularly made on the fire ; these are not 
affected with impurity for birth, provided they refrain from 
coming into contact. 

ex. C- 

20. A person observing a religious vow, a person purified 
by being engaged in some sacrificial rite, one of a re- 
generate caste who has set up a sacred fire in his house, and a 
person whose services are in requisition by the king — these, 
and a sovereign, have no impurity on account of birth. 

U^J+l'^cl fsreff ^^R^ *TI% cT^TT 

18. Nothing but contact can cause to a Brahman an 
impure state, — whether it be on account of a birth or a 
death. To one refraining from all contact, there is no 
impurity, either for birth or for death. 

Artists and artisans, physicians, barbers, slaves, 
male or female, kings, and Brahmans who lead a sancti- 
fied religious life, — all these are purified without a moment's 


TT^f^J ITTT^ TTfeT ^--M^ld "qTfsf^: *R% 

A person observing a religious vow, a person purified 
by being engaged in some sacrificial rite, one of a re- 
generate caste who has set up a sacred fire in his house, and a 
person whose services are in requisition by the king — these, 
and a sovereign, have no impurity on account of birth. 

cKPhRTcTF T8J I <*> I <rH TpffcT ^ 

21. A person, who is about to be engaged in a battle, or 
who has made preparations for making a gift, or who is in 
distress, or a Brahman who has been invited to partake a 
religious feast — these become pure then and there ; — so it 
has been ordained by the saints, — -as pure as if they had 
observed the full and prescribed term (of purification) . 

22. If a householder, on the occasion of a birth, abso- 
lutely refrains from all contact, — then the mother becomes 

pure in ten days, while a plunge in the water will render 
the father pure. 

23. Impurity on the ground of death affects all relatives 
in the same way ; but that for birth affects only the father 
and the mother; that on the ground of birth affects only 
the mother ; the father becomes pure by washing himself. 

[Madhava explains this text as follows : — So far as incompetency 
to perforin religious rites is concerned, all kinsfolk, whether parents 
or others, are affected in the same way, if a death occurs. But unfit, 
ness for being touched is anothter effect of impurity. This is confined 
solely to the parents, when there is a birth. Again, the mother 
remains unfit for being touched till the tenth day, while the father 
remains so till he takes a wash.] 

o-, o 

A brahmana is impure if he touches his wife who gives birth to a child 
eventhough he may be well versed with the six angas of the veda. 

25. These two are destined to reach the very highest 

of all regions, having penetrated through the solar orb ; — 

namely, a mendicant who has practised Yoga, and a 

soldier who has been killed, fighting with his face towards 

the foes. 

Pololl^loHoM^ ^^l^dUd* 

cs --^ 

Objects are pure eventhough if impurity raises due to birth in marriage 
or yagyas . They are considered pure. 

C A 

For those who died in the course of doing service 
to the Brahman caste, or while rescuing women, or cows 
being carried away by force, or in battles, — the impurity 
lasts only for a single night. 

£1 fa HI wft cT% u4H^ci'^rfMt 

25. These two are destined to reach the very highest 

of all regions, having penetrated through the solar orb ; — 

namely, a mendicant who has practised Yoga, and a 

soldier who has been killed, fighting with his face towards 

the foes. 

^ On -Si 

26. Wherever a hero is killed, being surrounded by a 
number of foes, he reaches regions of undying bliss, — pro- 
vided he utters no cowardly words. 

The sun trembles from his place on seeing a brahmana who has taken 
sanyasa.This sanyasi pierces the solar orb and reaches the ultimate 
position of brahman. 

MPblMI ^T J l^r^-J ^?T T TTet cT^RT ^ 

27. He who comes forward to protect, when the fighting 
forces have been routed and are running away on all sides 
—wins the fruits of a well-performed sacrificial yagya rite. 

Celestial damsels seize for themselves, and take 
delight with the hero, whose body is wounded or cut by 
arrows, clubs, or maces. 

Thousands of celestial damsels, rush forward in a 

hurry towards a hero killed in battle, each proclaiming, * He 

is my lord, he is mine. ' 

The regions which Brahman aspirants after heavenly 
bliss reach by performing many sacrificial rites, and by 
austerities of various forms, — the same seats of bliss are 
attained in an instant's time by valorous men, who meet 
their death while blamelessly fighting on a field of battle. 

f^TcFT eP=q% d^vHI 4 rl H I fa TRT^TT: 

If victorious, wealth is won ; if death results, beauti- 
ful women fall to his share ; since this corporeal frame is 
liable to perish in an instant's time, why should we be shy 
of meeting death on a field of battle ? 

If blood oozes out from the forehead, 'while fighting, 
and enters the mouth — that is on a par with a drink of the 
soma juice, for a fight is a religious rite properly performed : 
so it has been represented by the saints. 

Those excellent Brahmans, who carry the corpse of 

a friendless Brahman, gain, at every step they take, one by 

one, all the objects for which a sacrifice is performed. 

Blessed is their deed. No evil happens to them ; nor 

do they incur a sin. By plunging in water, they then and 

there are freed from impurity. 

For (the impurity caused by) carrying to the cremation 
ground and cremating the corpse of a superior Brahman who 
has departed this life, without a relative or a friend at his 
side, — one becomes pure by practising a single Pranayama. 

[According to Manu, to repeat the Gayatri thrice, while balding 
I the breath, is called a pranayama.] 

For voluntarily following a corpse, whether it be 
that of an agnate or not, — washing with the clothing on, 
touching the fire, and eating clarified butter, — these are the 
means of purifying one's self. 

Where a Brahman from ignorance follows the corpse 
of one who belongs to the military caste, he becomes im- 
pure for a single night, and purifies himself by eating the 
fivefold products of a cow. 

[These are, milk, curd, clarified butter, cow's urine and cowdung. 

If a Brahman, from ignorance, follows the corpse of 

a person of the Vaisya caste, he should observe impurity for 

full two nights, and should then practice six Pranayamas. 

If a Brahman, with a feeble knowledge of law, should 
follow a corpse of the Shoodra caste, while the same is being 
carried to the burning-ground, he shall become impure for 
full three nights. 

fSTT% cT cT?T: "q# ^Rff ^TT^T ^H^JIIH 

<o ex. ■-. - ■■ 

When the period of three nights is complete, he 

should repair to a river that falls into the sea ; there a hun- 
dred Pranayamas are to be practised by him ; hereafter he 
eats clarified butter, and restores him to purity again. 



When the Shoodras have finished all the obsequial rites, 
and have come to the water's side, then they may be follow- 
ed by persons of the regenerate caste. This law has pre- 
vailed from ancient times. 

[Madhava says that the meaning is not 'coming to the water's 
side ' — but * when they have ceased to offer libations of water. 

End of third chapter of Parasara. 



4ddHMI<Rlsh)yi^^KI A|Rc|| ■a=RTTcI 
^vfMlcWlyHI^I J I fti^N I 1WPq% * 

1. Whether from excessive pride, excessive wrath, or 
from affection, or from fear, should a man or a woman 
hang one's self, — then this is the destiny that awaits him 
or her. 

M-MVURUdWU-Wf cSF^" dHfa Haifa 

2. He or she sinks into a region utterly dark, and filled 

to the brink with pus and blood ; that torment is suffered for 
sixty thousand years. 

3. For such a being there should be no impurity, no 
libation of water, no cremation, nor any shedding of tears. 

dH <£-<*s<m VJWHfl <2|cH I ^y^ I M fa: 
jilPH^d ?T2TT^5 ^fT^R cT ^ifddH "tf 

4. Those who carry the corpse or set it on fire, or cut the 
rope wherewith the person hanged himself or herself, must 

purify themselves by a Taptakrichchhra ; so has Prajapati 
declared the law to be. 

[Taptakrichchhra is a sort of penance; the person observing it 
must live on clarified butter, milk, and hot water, three days each ; 
and must inhale hot air for three days.] 

wrt1% 3 % form oft ^r&iiUki^j % 
^MH^cur^di "nt ^ c^jfomp^ff^WFf ^ 

5 and 6. The Brahmans who touch the corpse of a per- 
son killed by cows or bulls, or of one who hanged himself, or 
of one whose death was caused by a person of the Brahman 
caste; and those who carry the corpse, or set fire to it; or 
those other persons who follow the corpse ; and also those 
who cut down the rope ; all should purify themselves by a 
Taptakrichchhra ; and then a number of Brahmans should 
be fed by them. By way of a gratuity they should give to a 
Brahman, a cow accompanied by a bull able to draw a cart. 

^]£Ht4li iM^sSjR ^H^li Wl: ft^RJ 

Hot water should be drunk for three days , hot milk for three ; 

hot ghee for three ; and air should be the sole subsistence for the 


three days. Seven palas (a pala = 4 tolas) is the quantity of water 

to be drunk ; three palas that of the milk to be drunk ; a single 

' pala is the measure of the ghee. This rule governs the penance 

Taptakf ichchhra 

If a Brahman associates with persons degraded 

by sin, but has been forced to do so against his wish, 

for five, or ten, or full twelve days ; or for half a month, 

or a month ; or for a couple of months ; or for half a 

year, or for one complete year ; at the expiration of the 

term he becomes degraded as they. He should fast three 

days, if the association has ended in the first fortnight ; if 

in the second, the penance should be a Krichchhra ; (a sort 

of penance extending over twelve continuous days, and 

consisting in partial or absolute fasts) ; if in the third 

fortnight, the penance should be a Santapana-krichchhra ; 

if in the fourth fortnight, the penance is a fast for full ten 

days ; if in the fifth fortnight, the fast must be for full 

twelve days; if in the sixth fortnight, a single Chandrayana 

is the penance; if in the seventh, a double Chandrayana; 

if in the eighth, he should, for the sake of purity, observe 

a Krichchhra extending over full six months. As many gold 

coins must the gratuity be, as there are fortnights in the 

period the association lasts. 

[A gratuity, dakshina, is the money gifted to a Brahmana, 
without which no religious observance has efficacy.] 

*— **\ *■■■ 

To be purified observe krichhra for six months . Atleast in order of a 
paksha(15 days) with gift of gold. 

TH ^JcTT ^F ^TTfcT f^r^PTT ^T ^T: ^T: ^X 

If a woman meets not her lord, on the day that her 

monthly courses stop, — she after death goes to hell, — and 

becomes a widow in repeated births. 

^d^Hldi W ^\ ^7$ TTflT^r HIMJI^Pd 

ex *o * 

If the husband meets not his wife on the day that 
her monthly courses cease, and she be near at hand, he 
incurs the awful sin of having killed a foetus. There is 
not the slightest doubt herein. 

ttt ^pfr ^5rrq% h^tt u*><\ ^r "q^r: w\- ^ 

If a woman despises her husband, because he being 

either poor, or diseased, or a dunce, — she, after death, is 

born a bitch, or a sow, again and again. 

^Trqt -4\ di id ^fT H I ^Ml t«4 <d dH I ^Arl 

M I *gA W^ *RT: TTT ^TTfr ^TI^F ^TcJ ^V9 

If a woman, during her husband's life, observes a 
religious vow which involves a fast, that woman thereby 
shortens her husband's life, and after death goes to hell. 

If a woman performs a religious rite, without taking 
her husband's consent, it is the Rakshasas who appropriate 
the whole of that religious rite. This is in conformity to 
what Manu has said. 

If a woman does harm to her kinsmen and friends, 
or if she causes herself to miscarry, no one should hold con- 
verse with her. 

What sin is incurred in killing a Brahman, abortion 

causes a sin twice as great ; there is no atonement for that 

sin. The abandonment of such a woman has been ordained 

by law. 

He who sets his face against righteousness, is but 
a Chandala by his acts. He gains nothing by being a 
mendicant, or by worshipping the household fire. 

If seeds be carried either by a stream or by wind 

unto the soil of a person's field, and a crop is yielded by the 
field so sown, the crop will belong to the owner of the soil, 
not to the person who owned the seeds. 

Similar thereto are the two descriptions of bastard 

sons, both begotten on another's wife ; they pass by the 

names of Kunda and Golaka. The bastard is a Kunda, if 

the woman's husband lives ; it is a Golaka if begotten after 

his death. 

^JI-HMlfMdMirM TV=m <t\<£\ *r%cT ^ 

A son is either an aurasa (son of the body) ; or a 
kshetraja (an offspring of one's wife by a kinsman or person 
duly appointed to procreate issue to the husband) ; or a datta ; 
(that is, obtained by gifts) ; or a kritima, (I. e., a son made) . 
If either the father or the mother gives, the same is called a 
given son. 

MRfaR): MRSl-dl ^FTT ^T MRf^-ild 

An elder brother remaining unmarried while a younger 
marries, and that same younger brother himself who mar- 
ries before his elder brother, and the woman who becomes 
the wife of such a younger brother, together with the 
person who gives away the bride, and the priest who offi- 
ciates at the marriage, — all these are doomed to hell. 

A double Krichchhra is the penance ordained for the 

said elder brother, a single Krichchhra for the bride herself. 

He who gave away the bride must perform a Krichchhra and 

an Atikrichchhra ; while the priest must observe the Chan- 

drayana rite. 


If the elder brother be a hunchback, a dwarf, a 

eunuch, an idiot, or hoarse of voice, (probably the word 

* gadgada ' here means ' a person of an indistinct utterance, ' 

like the dumb) , or blind from birth, or deaf, or dumb, there 

is no sin in the younger 's marrying first. 

fq?pTp: WTW: M-Hkl UdW^TT 

If the elder be his paternal uncle's son, or the son 
of a co-wife of the mother, or the son of another's wife- 
then the younger has no sin if he disregards him, either in 
marriage, or in setting up the agnihotra fire. 

[For the younger brother to set up his household fire before the 
elder is a sin ; the setting up of a household fire is in general 
succeeded by marriage.] 

-HH^IId-W cM r Td^-^-H--H ^TT ^ 

Where the elder brother is alive, but hasn't set up agnihotra 
fire, the younger may do so, being permitted by him. This is in 
conformity to what Shank has said. 

T& *J% y<d f^d ckdl^l ^T TTfcTrT ^T 
M«l^llMrW Hkl-lili MPd-l^-il "iWHlrr "^o 

When her husband is missing, or is dead, or has 

renounced the world, or is impotent, or has been degraded 

by sin, — on any of the said five calamities befalling a woman, 

law has ordained another husband for her. 

TTT ^TTT cT^rT W 7 ? ^TSTT rT «sl^l^|Rjii: ^ 

If a woman has led a continent life, after her lord 

departed this life, she wins a region of bliss after her death, 

like to the well-known male observers of a celebate life. 

If a woman follows her departed lord, by burning 
herself on the same funeral pile, she will dwell in heaven 
for as many years as there are hairs on the human frame, — 
which reach the number of three crores and a half. 

o^Mill^l ^||o4M ^eTT^5Tr[ Relict 

"^ c 
31. As a snake-catcher seizes a venomous serpent by 
force, and from within its hole lifts it up ; so does a wife 
deliver her lord from the torments of hell, and then rejoices 
[in heaven] with him. 



1. If a superior Brahman is bitten by a wolf, or by a 
dog, or a jackal, or the like, he should wash himself, 
and should inaudibly recite the Gayatri verse, the holy 
mother of the vedic hymns. 

-H HsW^H I &lPM ^pn -^E: Trf^T%7J ^ 

2. A person bitten by a dog is pure again, if he washes 
himself with water touched with the horns of a cow, or at 
the confluence of two big rivers, or if he pays a visit to the 

■■- -- 

3. Should a Brahman sanctified by a knowledge of the 
veda, by learning and regular observance of religious rites, 
happen to be bitten by a dog, he washes himself with water 
touched with gold, then drinks ghee, and becomes pure. 

UddW TFTT^FT Air*9Rl3HMId£<l 

4. If a person happens to receive the bite of a dog, 
while in course of performing a religious rite, he should 
fast for full three nights, should swallow ghee, and drink 
some water touched with the kusa grass, and should then 
perform the remaining part of the religious rite. 

W3k\- tt^tT ^rrfq tftt ^fT ^^r<^: 

5. If a twice born, whether he leads a strictly re- 
ligious life or not, is bitten by a dog, let a number of Bran- 
mans be saluted by him, who render him pure by casting 
their eyes on him. 

TRT y M I d dl d <HH^ Pcf fa R<H dW^ 

6. If a part of the body be smelt, or licked by a dog, or 
scratched with the nails of the beast, — to wash it with 
water and to singe it with fire, — are the two courses pre- 
scribed by law. 

TFTTH <sll^fl ^E\ -^M^H o[ ^U|o| I 

7. If a Brahman woman be bitten by a dog, or a jackal, 

or a wolf, — the rising stars and planets should be looked at 
by her, whereby she becomes immediately pure. 

8. If it be a dark fortnight, and the moon at no moment 
comes to sight, she should gaze at that part of the heavens, 
where the moon is known to be travelling at the time. 

7H*k<sH3ri+ Trrcr tftt ^ft P^Tmh: 

9. If a superior Brahman be bitten by a dog, and there is 
no other Brahman in the village, he should circumambulate 
a bull and bathe ; thereby he becomes immediately pure. 

^%xf 4\&4 f^TTT dl<*Wl H^cir^dM. 
UMNcM "^TCTSJ I r^y Kl I H H ^ 1 1 4H H I rt 

10—14. If a Brahman, who performs agnihotra, be 
killed by a Chandala, or a SVapaka, or by cattle, or by 
Brahmans, or if he has committed suicide by poison, his 
dead body should be burnt by another Brahman, with 
lowkikagni, (i.e., not the sacred household fire) without 
reciting the holy mantras. If the body be touched, or carried 
or burnt, by any person connected by blood with him, — the 
penance of Prajapatya should thereafter be observed by 
that person, with the permission of other Brahmans. Then 
the Brahman should take out and wash with milk the 
calcined bones ; and then with his own holy fire, while 
reciting the hymn proper for his tribe, separately burn the 
same once again. If a Brahman, who had his sacred fire, 
should depart this life by the fiat of fate while dwelling in a 
foreign country, and his sacred fire yet subsists in his house, 
hear, most excellent Saints, the sacred regulation relating 
to his cremation rite. 

«ffi|«Tf ^T^£ ci^K^dl^ <^Md ^ 
< -il l< ^1 c|fc|4il4|: ^TIFTST ^ Pol -M £ rj, ^ 

15 — 18. Let the hide of a black antelope be spread ; 
let the figure of a man be made with kusa grass ; let seven 
hundred leaves be gathered with their footstalks intact ; 
let forty of these be placed on the head of the figure ; ten 
upon the throat ; one hundred on the two arms ; and ten 
upon the fingers ; one hundred on the hip ; two hundred on 
the belly ; eight on the two testicles ; five on the male 
organ ; twenty- one on the two thighs ; two hundred on the 
knees and the legs ; and six on the toes of the feet. Let 
the sacrificial vessels be then arranged. 

^F^t lk\^ forf^r^wiKJifl ybeh^uPM 
*Tf ^t <p^4ii -^% ^tf> cfto ^r£m ^ 

■ _■■ 

19 — 21. The vessel shamya should be placed on the male 

organ, and the wood for generating the frictional fire(arani) on the 
two testicles ; the vessel juhu on the right hand ; the vessel 
upabhrit on the left hand ; the mortar on his back, as also the 
pestle ; the stone slab on the chest ; rice, ghee and sesamum 
seed upon the mouth ; the water vessel upon his ear ; the 
vessel for holding the ghee on his eyes. A piece of gold 
should be placed on his ear, eyes, mouth and nose. 

-\ -v 

22 — 23. At the spot one should bring together all the 
requisites for a burnt sacrifice ; and should make an offering 
with the recitation of the hymn, which begins with the 
words — ' asau svargaya lokaya lokaya, svaha. ' This offering 
should be made either by a son, or by a brother, or by any 
kinsman of the deceased. The observances are the same as 
followed when a burnt sacrifice is performed. This ought 
to be done by persons learned in law. 

^f^r % r&*\ i w ^ % ^TTf^r wri -rjfm ^ 

24. When the observances conform to what has been 

said above, the dead man undoubtedly reaches the abode of 

the supreme Being (brahma loka) . And the Brahmans who burn him are 

destined to attain the highest bliss. 

25, But if they rely upon their own understanding, and 

are led to adopt a different course, they are sure to shorten 
their lives, and cast themselves into an impure hell. 

End of fifth chapter. 

yirill^^Mmi-MriJxIol 4l| HH 



1. Now I am going fully to explain the expiation neces- 
sary for killing animals, such as Parasara explained it before, 
and is detailed in full in Manu ' s work. 

2. If a heron (krauncha) , a crane, a goose, a ruddy 

goose, a cock, a web-footed animal, or a sarabha, be killed 

purity is restored in a single day, 

3. The killer of a heron, a tittibha, a parrot, a pigeon, 
a snake, or a crocodile, attains purity by fasting in the day- 
time and eating at night. 

<£<*><*>! <*><*> Mid HI -^Tft PdRlR^ld*: 

4. The killer of a wolf, a crow, a dove, a hill maina, or a 
quail, purifies himself by plunging in water, and performing 
a single pranayama, both at the rising and the setting of 
the sun. 

[The word in the original is ' vrika ' , which ordinarily means ' a 
wolf. ' Madhava says that it here means * a species of bird. '] 

?HMcNI4?n f^f Rl&r^chld Hl^dl^H: J* 

5. Let the killer of a vulture, a hawk, a rabbit, or an 

owl, live, to purify himself, on uncooked food for an entire 

day, and on air for three meal times. 

4 ^l4\ rilVHHl' ^ chl l^hcrl 1^31-0 d* 
cdin=l4>KxbM^tl Jl^\ ^TxFHMHIrl ^ 

6. Let the killer of a valguli, a tittihha, a black-bird, a 
wag-tail, a Idvikd, or the red-winged bird, purify himself by 
eating at night. 

[In these verses, the same animal is mentioned more than once ; 
Madhava says that different sub-species are intended thereby.] 

7. Let the killer of a klirandava, a chakora, the tawny 
bird, an osprey, a sky-lark, or the like, purify himself by 
worshipping Shiva. 

vU?^-c||N*rRTt§I MKMd + fM^cll 

8. And the expiation for killing a bherunda, a blue jay, 

a bhasa, a dove, a partridge, in fact all sorts of birds, is 
a fast for an entire day. 


ex. *»■ 

9. For killing a mouse, a cat, a snake, a monster snake, 
or the dundubha snake, a number of Brahmans should be fed 
with krisara, (Khichri, — rice, ghee and peas or sesamum 
cooked together,) and the gratuity should be an iron rod. 

10. A man purifies himself from the sin of j killing a 
porpoise, a lizard, a snake, a tortoise, or a porcupine, by 
living on egg-fruit for an entire day. 

11. The killer of a wolf, a jackal, a bear, or a hyena, 
purifies himself by living on air for full three days, and 
giving a Brahman a prastha of sesamum seed. 

[A prastha consists of 48 double handfuls.] 

12. The expiation for killing an elephant, a horse, a 
buffalo, or a camel, is a fast for an entire day, and plunging 
in water for three times, — at sunrise, sunset and noon. 

^R^ ^TRT ftt^ f^ti ^m ?[ NM-M-t 

^jtzjcr uBKisHufauKii d m^i h ^ ^ 

13. A man expiates the sin of killing an antelope, a 

monkey, a lion, a leopard, or a tiger, by a three nights' fast, 
and by gratifying a number of Brahmans with food. 

14. Let the killer of a stag, a rohita, a boar, a sheep, or 
a goat, fast for an entire day, and break the fast with 
some such food as has not been produced by the tillage of 

TJjt xjjji^KHi ^ U^Nl' cH-c||Rji!m 

15. And so for killing any fourfooted beast, or any 
animal that roves in the wood, there should be a fast for 
an entire day, while inaudibly reciting that special hymn, 
which relates to the god of fire. 

rVlR^-H obk->ch ^\t f^Fi off ^HRT H Id^d 

16. If a woman, an artist, or a mechanic, be killed, two 
prajapatyas is the penance prescribed, and the gratuity is a 
bull and ten cows. 

17. Should one kill an innocent member of the military 
caste, or a similar Vaisya, he should expiate it by a 
double atikrichchhra, and a gratuity of twenty heads of 

^q ^jt r^-Mm-rb r^4>4^t H^sikwH 

18. For killing a Vaishya who lives a Shoodra's life, or a 
Brdhman who perpetrates forbidden acts, the penance pre- 
scribed is the lunar fast, with a gratuity of thirty head of 
cattle . 

19. If a Brahman should ever happen to kill any person 

of the Chandala caste, let him perform a Krichchhra praja- 
patya; and give a gratuity of two cows. 

20. If a person belonging to the Chandala caste, should 
happen to be killed by one of the Kshatriya tribe, or by a 
Vaisya, or by a Shoodra, the slayer becomes pure by half a 
krichchhra . 

-o * 

21. If a thief, a Svapaka, or a Chandala, comes to be 
killed by one of the Brahmin caste, the murderer may purify 
himself by fasting for an entire day, and by tasting the five 
articles derived from a cow. 

22. If a Brahman speaks to one of the Svapaka caste, or 
to a person of the Chandala tribe, he should speak to a 
member of the Brahman caste, and once recite the Gayatri 

verse . 

23. For sleeping together with many of the Chandala 

caste, let a Brahman fast for full three nights. If he treads 
a path that a Chandala has trodden, his sin is removed by a 
remembrance of the Gayatri verse 

24. On seeing a Chandala, let him look at the sun without 
a moment's delay. For touching a Chandala, let him bathe 
with his clothing on. 

25. If a Brahman drinks water from a tank excavated 

by a Chandala, and if it be done without knowledge, he will 
be pure by omitting one meal ; else it is necessary to fast 
for a day. 

--J^lctHI^UWfeJ W^T =hMJM ^TeFT 

26. For drinking water raised from a well, into which 

a Chandala 's pot has been dipped, purity may be restored by 
drinking for three nights cow's urine in which half-ripe 
barley has been blended. 

27. If a Brahman drinks water contained in a Chandala 's 
jar, provided he throws it up then and there, he will have 

to observe the prajiipatya penance. 

^Tfc H fa Mel cfRT ?Tfft «4<-4vjfl4rd 

28. But if he fails to throw the water up, and if it is 
assimilated into his body, let the penance prescribed be not 
prajapatya but krichchhra santapana. 

29. A Brahman in the above case should perform a 
santapana; a member of the next inferior caste has to per- 
form a prajapatya ; the penance for a Vaisya is half of 
the same ; while for the Shoodra a quarter penance is pre- 

■H 1 4^ ^MH V-M H I* H *TcT Tf^R: f^RT 
TORT: ^ Bl 4l %^T: toI^T UHKd: 3° 
d^ch-cJTMdl^H r^lcfMi cT PHN^Pd: 


30—31. If a Brahman, a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, or a Shoodra, 
should by inadvertence drink water, or curd, or milk con- 
tained in the vessel of the lowest castes ; — then the rege- 
narrates are purified by Brahmakoorcha and a fast ; a Shoodra 
by a fast and by making gifts, so far as his ability extends. 

[Madhava cites a verse mentioning the following seven as the 
' lowest castes ' , or ' antyaja ', as they are called : — the 

the worker in leather, the actor, the Varuda (probably the betel- 
grower) , the fisherman, the Meda, and the Bheel.] 

J?IHpI^M4>I^KI <^>KI^I-lil^Iv^rfcT ^ 

32 . When a Brahman through ignorance chances to eat 

any food that belongs to one of the Chandala caste, he 

should purify himself by living on half-ripe barley and 
cow's urine for ten nights. 

T^TT# PH^H^^old erg f^rfrff^Ri ^ 

33. The barley should be steeped in the cow's urine, and 
one mouthful thereof should be taken day by day ; for ten 
days he must live a blameless life ; this is the penance pre- 
scribed for him. 

faciei dM-Hd-W f^TT: ^cf^-Hl^H ^ 

34. If a Chandala stays in a person's house, while his 
caste is not known to anybody there, — then, when his caste 
comes to be known, the Brahmans, when waited upon, should 
show a favour by prescribing the penance. 

35. Brahmans well-versed in the rules of law and 
thoroughly conversant with all the Vedas, should propound 
rules which have emanated from the mouths of saints, and 
rescue the sinking sinner from his sin. 

36. He and his servants, all should eat milk, unripe 
barley, cow's urine, curd and ghee ; and there- should be a 
plunge in water at the three conjunctions, (sunrise, sunset 
and noon) . 

37. He is to eat the mixture of barley and urine with 

curd for three successive days ; for three days again with the 
ghee ; and with the milk he eats it three days ; for full three 
days with each of the above-named things. 

38. He must not eat it with a feeling of disgust, or as 

if it were the remains of another's meal, or as if it were 
polluted from a contact with worms. Of curd or milk, three 
palas are taken ; and of the ghee, only a single pala. 

[A pala = 4i or 8 tolas.] 

■H^HHI "cT M 3 t& V<£W 4l W I H <*> l' ^4 41 : 

-o ---Z> 

*Mi>fl^H cj i-Ji | j.i 1 1 uRc^MM 4<!H^H 35. 

39. Copper or bell-metal vessels become purified, by 
rubbing with ashes ; washing in water makes all clothing 
clean ; an earthen pot is clean by abandonment. 

-gjk ^TT cT ^l^lfH ^I^hIh MM4>H Yo 

40. Then the saf flower, the molasses, cotton, oil, ghee, 

and all the paddy, [in the house] should be deposited at the 
door, and then the house should be set on fire. 

[The above expiations are intended as a purification, when a 
Chandala has lived unknown in the house.] 

41. Having done all this, he should thereafter gratify 
the Brahmans with food ; and the gratuity prescribed to be 
given them is thirty cows, and a single bull. 

42. The ground itself is rendered pure, by being plas- 
tered anew, by digging up, by offerings made on the fire, 

or by the recitation of the sacred words ; it loses its pollu- 
tion also by the Brahmans having rested their feet upon it. 

Cs. -O 

43. In case of association for a month or half a month, 
with persons belonging to the Chandala caste, purity returns 
by living on cow's urine, wherewith unripe barley is mixed, 
during the period of half a month 

i\$<\4 ^ <=b4Td£lN TFT ^T <*k^ld v^ 

44—45. If a washerwoman, or a woman of the caste that 

works in leather, or of the hunter, or of the fowler caste, or of 

that works in bamboo, should live unknown in the 

house of one who belongs to any of the four chief castes ; — 

then, when the fact is known, the process for purification is 

half of what has been described above ; the house, however, 

need not be burnt ; but the rest of the foregoing ceremony 

must necessarily be performed 

J|0WI=*T*RR Jl^&^JJ^Icil ^Tfc +4-4 fad 

46. If a Chandala should enter the inside of any one's 
house, he must be turned out from the abode, and all the 
earthen vessels should be thrown away. 



47. But an earthen vessel filled with an oily substance 
need not be thrown away. The house should be washed 
with cow-dung and water, mixed together. 

«sl I £1 <dj *4 qKI $sA M 4 *? II PlJ d U w^ - 

48. When there is a wound or a sore on a Brahman's 

body, and there is a secretion of pus and blood, and worms 
have been generated there, — if it be asked, what should 
the penance be ? 

49. A person who has been bitten by worms, should 
for three days wash himself with cow- dung and with 
the urine of the cow, and with curd and milk, and with 
ghee ; he should swallow the same ; he would thus become 
pure . 

*d fa 4b fa ^o|4^M^HINIHKMd 

50. A Kshatriya too, should become pure, by making 

a gift of five mashas of gold. For a Vaisya, the prescribed 
penance is, — the gratuity of a cow, and likewise a fast. 

^Mfes( dMfesl <Jp^s{ ^<+4Rl ^ 

tpt , q^fd Inn^si ^i^^i^MMiRdH 

3MoH^Tl ^TTFRT r^^J-MlFcidirH o|" 

51 — 54. For the S'lidras, however, no fast is ordained in 
the case ; a Shoodra is pure by the making of a gift. 

When the Brahmans, who are the divinities of the earth, 
utter the words, — * all has been rightly performed ' — the 
same should be accepted with an obeisance and bending of 
the head ; for in the said utterance from a Brahman's mouth 
are gathered the fruits of an agnishtoma rite. The defects in 
the performance of any religious rite, whether recitation, or 
austerities, or the performance of a sacrificial rite — are all 
removed, if the Brahmans signify the approval thereof. If 
the sinner be ill, or in distress, or fatigued, or in times of 

I scarcity or civil commotion, — the fast, the austerities and 
! offerings are vicariously performed by employing a Brahman. 
Or the Brahmans in a body, may, out of grace, sow an 
indulgence to the sinful man. 

^^[^IH Moll Mild r^^^MifridR^ 

55. If penance is performed by employing Brahmans, all 
its objects are sure to be gained. Indulgence is due to a 

feeble man, as also to the young and the aged. 

56. In case of others, indulgence would be worthy of 
blame. Therefore indulgence is not sanctioned by law. If 
from affection, or avarice, or through fear, or ignorance of 
the law, 


57. Indulgence should be shown to a sinner ; then the 
sin transfers itself from the sinner to those who show indul- 
gence in prescribing the penance. Similarly the sin will 
transfer itself to them, if they prescribe an impracticable 
penance, when the sinner is at the point of death. 


58 — 60. For thereby is impeded a momentous duty. But 
this rule applies not to a healthy man. If, however, the 
prescribers of expiation, from ignorance of the law, vicari- 
ously perform the penance for a healthy man, and propound 
this rule for even him, they obstruct the real expiation of 
the sinful man, and sink into an impure region of woe. If 
a person disregards the instructions a Brahman gives, and if 
he performs the expiation just a A it pleases himself, his fast 
is fruitless ; he never wins any religious merit. The form 
of expiation, which even a single Brahman thinks fit to pre- 
scribe, should be accepted by all. 

[The beginning of shloka 58 is thus explained by Madhava. ' The 
momentous duty referred to here is the duty of calling to mind 
some beneficent divinity at the very moment of death, whereby all 
sins may be removed then and there. If an impracticable expiation 
is prescribed, the dying man will be in anxiety and trepidation 
thinking solely that he was going to die with all his sins unexpiated- 
And so with a preoccupied mind, the sinner does not even call the 
to mind, which no doubt would be deplorable. Therefore, 
one who undertakes to prescribe a penance should be cautious that 
he does not prescribe an exceedingly severe form of expiation, be- 
yond the power of the sinful man to perform. But this rule does 
not apply to a healthy man, I. e., there ought not to be any fear in 
prescribing the proper form of expiation if the sinner is healthy.] 

61 — 62. The sayings of Brahmans must receive accept- 
ance ; otherwise is incurred the sin of killing a child in the 
womb. The Brahmans are peripatetic places of pilgrimage, 
so are righteous persons ; what they utter is like the water 
from a holy pool. It washes the sins of uncleanly men. 
What the Brahmans say is respected by the deities them- 
selves . 

63—66. In a Brahman are united all the gods. What 
he says never turns false. Whether a fast, or a recitation, 
or an act of washing one's self, or a religious rite, pilgrim- 
age, or an act of some austerity, if it be performed vicari- 
ously by a Brahman for another, all its objects are sure to 
be gained. If there be worms in any food, or if the food be 
polluted with flies or the like, — water should be touched 
in the midst of eating the food, and the food itself should be 
touched with ashes. If a Brahman, while eating, should 
touch his foot with his hand, he eats the leavings of another 
person ; and likewise he who eats off a broken plate. 
One should not eat, while he is wearing his shoes, nor 
while reclining upon a bed, nor while he is standing up. 

67 — 69. Articles of food which have been looked at 
by a dog, or by a person of the Chandala caste, should 
be thrown away. What food is forbidden, and what the 
purification is for polluted food, I am going to tell you, 
just as Parasara has propounded it. If it is food, which 
has been already cooked, where its quantity equals an 
Dhaka or a droids a, and is polluted by contact with a crow 
or a dog, the owner of the polluted food should present 
himself before a number of Brahmans, and should submis- 
sively ask them how the food should be rendered pure. But 
a quantity of food equal to a drona in measure, though it be 
touched by the mouth of a crow or a dog-, should never 
be thrown away as unclean food. 

70. Thirty-two prasthas make a drona, and an ddhaha is 
equal to two prasthas ; so say Brahmans who know the Veda, 
who are skilled in the branches of it, and whose conduct is 
regulated by the Institutes of law. 

^FFF%| H I c| ef| d ^ J|o||y|ci <L4l-UH I v^ 


U<1 4lTT< 4>H ^tt-M £d I £l "^ d I M M rl 
U <* J4jTci chH ^tt-M ^d I ^l"^ d I M ^1 rl 

71 — 75. From this, the learned in the Veda and in the 
law, may readily ascertain what quantity of food a drona 

or an ddhaka is. ' A Brahman should throw away a small 
quantity of food, if it has been touched by the mouth of 
a crow or a dog, or has been smelt by a cow or an ass. If a 
drona or an ddhaka be its measure, then there is no unclean- 
ness in it. That part of the food, which the saliva of the 
animal has made unclean, should be picked up and thrown 
away ; then the food should be besprinkled with water 
touched with gold ; then it should be heated near a 
fire. Touched with the fire, and besprinkled with water 
which has had a contact with gold, and purified with the 
hymns of the Veda which the Brahmans recite near the 
polluted food, it becomes fit to be eaten without a moment's 
hesitation. If it be oil or ghee, or milk of the cow, and if 
the question be, what purification is proper for it, — a small 
portion should be thrown away ; and the oil or ghee should 
be strained ; the milk of a cow is purified by applying the 
flame of a fire to it. 

End of the sixth chapter. 


1. Now follows the topic of purification of chattels, in 
conformity to what Parasara has said. Of wooden vessels, 
the purification is paring with the adze. 

^^-hi ^T«q% ^r&i diyHKdn TpffcT 

2. A woman becomes pure, by her monthly courses, 

provided she has not gone astray ; a river is pure, if there 

is a stream in it, and if no impurities are visible on it. 

3. If an elongated tank, or a well, or a reservoir, becomes 
unclean on any account, a hundred jars of water should be 
drawn and thrown away, and the remainder is rendered pure 
by mixing with it the five articles derived from a cow. 

{_Viz., urine, dung, ghee, milk and curd.] 

4. Gauri (fair) is the appellation of a female child, when 
she is only eight years old ; rohim (scarlet) is her name when 
she is nine ; she is a hanyd (virgin) when ten years old ; 
thereafter she becomes similar to a female who has her 
courses month by month. 

wr <j jjlkvI opt ^ ^F^rf ^t y^-cts>Ri a 

5. When the twelfth year is reached by the female child, 

if the guardian does not give her away in marriage, her fore- 
fathers drink, without interruption, during each succeeding 
month, whatever blood is passed in her courses. 

TTFTT %5T f&RTT ^R" ^TFT m^\ rT^R" ^ \ 

6. The mother, and the father, and likewise the eldest 
brother, all these three relatives will go to hell, if before 
menstruation they neglect to marry the girl. 

^T^Tt ^H^^-41 <s4I^J4jTl HciHlI^d: ^ 

7. If a Brahman, deluded by ignorance and pride, 

comes to marry a girl of the aforesaid kind, he does not 

deserve to be spoken to ; food should never be partaken in 
company with him : that Biahman becomes the husband of a 
Shoodra girl. 

^TrqTw jpmfn^ w fa y I cPTeft "qfrT: 

^ 4>^r4^M4lcjNcfr TT5R fs^: ^ 

8. To remove the sin which a Brahman incurs by enjoy- 
ing a Shoodra female for a single night, he must for three 
years subsist on alms, and daily recite sacred hymns. 

9. Where after sunset, a Chandala or a degraded man, or 

a woman in her confinement, or a corpse, has been touched — 
if the question be, what is the method of purifying one's 

10. By looking at the fire, likewise at gold, and at the 
path by which the moon traverses the sky, and by washing 
himself when Brahmans have given permission to him, the 
sinner is rendered free from sin. 

^I^IHHdl^r ^TFT ^^TT f^T^TfcT 



11. If two Brahman women, both being then in their 
monthly courses, should happen to touch each other's person, 
they must observe a fast till the courses cease ; both become 
pure when the third night is passed. 

12. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, and 
the other belong to the Kshatriya tribe, — both being in their 
monthly courses then, and they should happen to touch each 
other's person, the first must observe one half of the Krich- 
chhra penance, while the second only a fourth. 

13. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, and the 
other belong to the Vaisya tribe, — both being in their monthly 
courses then, and they should happen to touch each other's 
person, the first must observe three-fourths of the Krich- 
chhra penance ; while the second only a fourth. 


14. If one of two women be of the Brahman caste, 

and the other belong to the Shoodra tribe, — both being in their 
monthly courses then, and if they happen to touch each 
other's person, — the first must observe a Krichchhra penance, 
while the second becomes pure by making a gift. 

+ -4j»J|j^|Kq% wf ?KT ^FtH ^TtzrHr 

15. A woman in her monthly courses, is restored to purity 
after having washed herself, on the fourth day. When the 
courses actually cease, however, it is then that she should 
engage herself in the performance of the rites due to the 
manes and the gods. 

-Cl JRI -4 sW : ^rKHH^^' cT yd del ^ 


16. When the menstrual fluid flows from day to day 

on account of a disease, it causes no impurity; that is, 

uncleanness by reason of disease alone. 

17. As long as the menstrual fluid continues to flow, 

so long the acts and doings of the woman cannot be clean. 
When the courses cease, the woman becomes fit to have 
intercourse with, and she may then employ herself in the 
household duties. 

18. On the first day that the blood begins to flow, the 
woman is comparable to a female Chandala ; on the second, 

she is like a Brahmanicide ; on the third, she may be likened 
to a washerwoman. On the fourth day, * however, she is 
entirely pure. 

[ Madhava says that the comparisons imply this, — as great a sin 
will be incurred by having intercourse with her on those particular 
days, as would be incurred by having intercourse with the females 
is compared to.] 

?T?ft^r I^p^r tffrTTT ^m^5^T ^zffcT 

19. If it be necessary for a person not in health, to wash 
himself in order to expiate a sin, — a healthy person should 
wash himself for ten successive times, and every time he ie., 
to touch the person diseased, whereby the latter will be ren- 
dered pure. 

W^TT W^TT W^H ?T?T: W^IcK: 

20. While a Brahman has not washed himself after taking 
his meals, if he chances to be touched by another yet un- 
washed after a meal, or by a dog, or by a Shoodra, he should 
fast for a single night, and then swallow the five articles 
derived from a cow, whereby purity is restored to- him. 

21. If himself unwashed, he is touched by a Shoodra, who, 
however, is not unwashed, — the purification is to wash him- 
self. If an unwashed Shoodra touches an unwashed regenerate 
man, the latter must perform the prajapatya penance. 

•q^CRT "?pq% ^TFq TR71T ^T Pci^-lcl ^ 

22. A bronze vessel may be rendered clean, by means 

of ashes being rubbed upon it, provided spirituous liquor 
does not besmear it. But having come in contact with 
any sort of spirituous liquor, it can be purified only by 
fire, and by its surface being scraped with a sharp instru- 
ment . 

23. Bronze vessels smelt by a cow, or polluted by a dog 

or a crow, or if a Shoodra has made them unclean by eating 
off them, are rendered pure, when they have been ten times 
rubbed with ashes. 

24. If on a vessel made of bronze, a gargle is cast, or 
water which has been used in washing the feet, — it should 
be buried in the earth for full six months, and at the 
end of that period it may be again taken out and put to 
use . 

25 — 26. Iron vessels are purified, after iron has been 
rubbed upon them ; a lead vessel is purified by being melted 
in the fire. In the case of vessels made of ivory, bone, horn, 
silver, or gold, or of costly stones, or of conch; water 
should be "used for the purpose of washing them ; thereafter 
they should be rubbed with stone. This is the purification 
prescribed by law. 


HJiH?-] <5Hl^r^|P-IHI HMHKP-I ^ 

27. Earthen vessels, by being burnt, are rendered clean ; 
and paddy, when scoured, is rendered clean ; vessels made 
of bamboo, or bark, and rags, linen, cotton clothing, and 
woolen cloth, and the birch tree bark ;— these are purified 
by sprinkling water on them. 

^fl #1 1 M <i M I ^T y N -ill I ^ feR^ d ^ 

28. Furniture made of munja grass, and likewise the 
winnowing fan, fruits, all sorts of leather and hide, and 
grass of various kinds, and wood, and ropes — all these are 
purified by sprinkling on them water. 

29. A painting brush, pillows, scarlet cloth, and such 

other things, after being dried in the sun, are to be sprinkled 
with water to render them pure. 

d fci * I -ilM^JH I PH -ItH d W I R<=h I fo ^T 

30. Cats, flies, insects, moths, worms, and frogs, come 
in contact with both what is pure and what is the reverse 

of pure; but their contact transmits no impurity. So Manu 
has said. 

31. Running water, while touching the ground, and 
particles of saliva, flying from each other's mouth, when a 
talk is held by two persons ; and oily substances, that may be 
left, after having been partaken of as food ; these are never 
unclean ; so it has been said by Manu. 

*TFf W^HId <TFT -qTyiLM-MMfayfel: 

By pouring water to the ground, the half drunk water by other brahmanas 
become pure to be consumed as per Manu. 


32. Betel and sugarcane, and likewise fruits, and oily 
substances which have been partaken of as food, and any 
unguent for perfuming the body, — these are never unclean 

on the occasion of offering a madhuparka, or on the occasion 
of a soma rite. 

Madhuparka is a present made to an honored guest i.e madhu or 
honey being an essential part of it] 

tsztt <+» «{-h dl -m i In ^tt^t: w$h i ^-m i fo ^ 

33. Roads, mud, and water, and boats, and paths, and 
grass, are purified by the sun and the wind; and so are 
buildings made of burnt bricks. 

■H$}±\ TTcTcTT qTCT c| Idl^d I gfcw%- 

f^mT w^j® m^n® ^ ^pd chcim ■$% 

34. A continuous stream is never unclean, nor dust which 
is carried by the breeze here and there ; and women, and 
aged persons, and infants too, are never unclean. 

«i^ci*<=ici3ifc ^angif «HN^ ^ 

35. During a civil commotion, or in exile, or when ill, or 
in misfortune, the first consideration is to preserve one's 
life ; practice of religion should at the time be postponed. 

36. By any kind of conduct, soft or cruel, one should 
deliver himself from a distressed state ; the practice of reli- 
gious rites ought to be left for a period when he is equal 

to the task. 

37. After the misfortune is over, one should think of 
purification and religious rites. Thereafter purity may be 
recovered by him. He ought to practice religion when his 
troubles are past. 

TfcT MKI^hl M 4$ I \£\ TTTT4t5v^TPT: 

End of the seventh chapter. 


^4>IH^>dMIM^Myi^raTt ^sf 'q^cT ^ 

1. Should cattle happen to die, while tied to a yoke, 

and without the owner's wish, — what should the expiation 
be for this involuntary sin ? 

^4>4<dfayRli ^^ TTFT fH^<4d. ^ 

2. The sin should be confessed before a number of such 
Brahmans as have studied the veda and its branches, as are 
conversant with the Institutes of Law, and devoted to their 

^Hl^fa4>dkl -sll^-lllMH^TT^T: 3 

3. Brahmans who know not the Gayatri relating to 
Savita, who are unacquainted with the Sandhya prayers, 

and with the sacrifice of fire, and who betake to tillage, — 
are Brahmans in name only. 

M<* d M IHH^ l-UPI sH ifd-H \~A\ M^Tl P=H IH 
WWT: u4dHI MR.NW ^T f^J% Y 

4. Brahmans who know not the religious rites, nor the 
mantras, — who make their living solely on the merit of 
their caste, — though gathered by thousands, cannot consti- 
tute a council {parishad for expounding the law) . 

M ?W Pd cFTt *t^t wf y4HdHW: 
dd-IN ^TcT*TT ^T^T d £xtH IU J I ^b Id J< 

5. Whatever is said by densely stupid and senseless 

people unacquainted with the law for the expiation of sin, — 
the same multiplies a hundred-fold into sin, and the expoun- 
ders are affected by the multiplied sin. 

yprfsixfr ■3T5T?TcT: fchnHN ^pffc ^rt ^ 

6. Where one, unacquainted with the Institutes of Law, 
prescribes an expiation for sin, the sinner is rendered 
pure — but the sin is transferred to the prescriber. 

ex ^O 

TTHf^T f^fPTt ^d\-W W^T?T : ^ 

7. If four or three Brahmans, whose knowledge of the 
Veda is thorough and complete, unite in expounding a rule 
of law, — the exposition is to be taken as the law to be 
followed ; — not what is declared by a thousand men of a 
different character. 

yHKiHHi' hi J mi ^r ^cf ycKf^i -^ 

rlNIHf^d ^ <H'^d J l-!iHir<HIH ^ 

'■-■ --ji **» 

8. In expounding a rule of law, authorities should 

be sought, and consulted anew; sin is in terror from persons 
who do the same ; for law declared by them is essentially 
right . 

^I^Pl ^RT cTt^f Hl^dl^l^i''-^rfcT 
V^t mRn^I^IMI^tI^c^H £ 

9. As water deposited on a piece of stone is dried up by the 
sun and the wind; so sin generated by evil deeds comes to 

an end, when a council have declared what the atonement is. 

10. The sin affects not the sinner ; n attacks not the 
council; it is destroyed, like water from contact with wind 
and solar heat. 

<s|I3HU' TTR"9Tf % MRN^lFWFRt ^ 

11. Four or three Brahmans, versed in the Veda, and daily 
worshipping the household fire, and endowed with capacity, 
are fit to form a council. 

12. If the Brahmans be such as have not set up a sacred 
fire, but at the same time are thoroughly versed in the Veda 
and its branches, and are acquainted with what the law is, 
five, or three of such would form a council. 

HHMIHIcHfa-ilHI r^Mi 4 *l <4 1 P^H I H 
^kol^N ^TTcTFTT^FTSfq mRn-iS^ ^ 

13. Of saints, possessing knowledge of the nature of the 
soul, Brahmans in caste, performing sacrificial rites, and 
who have bathed on completion of the religious ceremonies 
which the Veda prescribes, even one can form a council. 

14. I have first declared five to be the right number; 

but in the absence of five, three of such as are devoted to 
the occupation prescribed for their caste, would be fit to con- 
stitute a council. 

^RT ^^f <J ^T f^m": %°RT ^FT^nT^n": 
mRnW HclMfkl 4H^-NJ]Rll^boirM $< 

15. Besides these — whatever other Brahmans there may 
possibly be, who are the bearers of the Brahman name 
alone, — they, even though numbering thousands upon thou- 
sands, have not the qualification to form a council. 

16. Like the figure of an elephant made of wood, or an 
antelope made with skin, is a Brahman who is not educated : 
the three merely bear the names. 

TTFRSTFT ^T^TT ^F^f ^TT =hMW f^fef: 

17. As is the site of a deserted village, or a waterless 
well, or an offering, made upon what is not fire, — so is a 
Brahman unacquainted with the mantras. 

18. As a eunuch, by uniting with women, can beget no 
issue ; as a barren soil cannot produce a crop ; as gift is 
fruitless, if made to an ignorant man; so is a Brahman un- 
acquainted with the sacred words, good for nothing. 

19. As by a gradual putting of tint after tint, a picture is 
developed into a life-like form; so, sacraments performed with 
recited hymns, bring out the inherent virtue of the Brahman. 

20. If Brahmans, the mere bearers of a Brahman's name, 
presume to prescribe a penance for sin, — they are guilty 
of a sin, and are destined to go to hell. 

5KrTl«=Ki dK-M-^Irl T^f^RcTTfq ^ 

21. The Brahmans who habitually study the Veda, and 

are constant in performing the five sacrificial rites, even 
though addicted to sensual pleasure, are able to deliver all 
the three worlds. 

UHHiflcl: ^H^II^N c{lHbril: W*T^F: 

22. Fire prepared on a cremating ground, can, when 
kindled, consume all ; similarly a Brahman, who knows the 
Veda, though eating everything, is yet like a god. 

^FTcznfr n "*rafftr ufai^ ^q2rr^% 

23. It is into the water that people cast all impure things ; 
in the same way, the burden of all sins should be cast into 
the fire of a superior Brahman. 

^TR^t ?l?iJdTc|^|: TT^T^F% ^Ail^l: ^ 

24. A Brahman, ignorant of the Gayatri h3"mn, is more 
unclean than even a Shoodra ; the Brahmans who know the 
nature and the sanctity of the Gayatri hymn, are honored 
and revered by all persons. 

25. Even a Brahman of a bad character deserves re- 
pect; but not so a Shoodra, even though his passions may 
have been subdued by him. Who would quit a wicked cow, 
and try to milk a docile female ass? 

26. The institutes of law form the car on which the 
Brahman mounts ; the Veda is the sword which he wields ; 
whatsoever he says is to be taken as the high- 
est rule of law, 

^ I d M fa+eMI ^ | ^- fa ^ifm 6<*>: 
^\mWT\ WTT: MN^NI ^IM-U ^ 

27. One skilled in each of the four Vedas ; one who 
knows what a religious duty is and what is the expia- 
tion for its breach ; one who is competent to expound 
the law ; one versed in the branches of the Veda ; one 
who has studied the institutes of law ; and the three, who 
are in any of the higher stages of life — these ten persons 
are the best fitted to form a council. 

28. The penance should be prescribed with the approval 

of the king ; it should never be prescribed independently 
of the king ; but where the penance is trifling, it may be 
carried out (without such approval) 

<ai^<li<WHldsb«KMI ^Fuf ^Ri^Pd 
drMIM ^m^TT ^T^T •J.MHHH Jl^sfd ^ 

29. If the king intends to lay down the law, disregarding 
what the Brahmans say, — the sin is multiplied a hundred- 
fold, and, so increased, affects the king 

yrqflJrt TTCT <£IKclc1MdHI J Jc1: 

30. Expiations should be prescribed in front of a temple ; 
then the prescriber shall perform a Kricchra for him- 
self, and then recite the Gayatri hymn, the mother of the 

31. The sinner must shave his head, including the coronal 
lock ; he must plunge in the water at sunrise, sunset, and 
noon ; he must pass a night in the midst of cows ; and 

in the daytime must follow the footsteps of cows. 

^T <*>cfk1lcHH^Ri Jlk^l cT iMfrbd: ^ 

32. In heat, in rain, in cold, or when the wind is blow- 
ing hard, he must not seek to shelter for himself without 
procuring a shelter for the cow, so far as he is able. 

33. Whether it be in his own, or in any other person's 

house, or in a field, or on a threshing-floor, — if he espies a 
cow consuming corn, he must not give a warning to any ; 
nor must he warn the owne, if the calf be (stealthily) suck- 
ing the milk. 

Mid ell' W^TTTf ^T Ucfyi^l: U H ^4 ^Y 

34. The sinner should drink water when the cows would 
drink ; he should go to sleep when they are about to sleep ; 
if a cow gets a fall, and sticks in the mud, he should raise 
her with the exertion of his utmost strength. 

^T^RTT^ TT^r^f ^T ^R?T MRIMR^d 

~\ ~\ ~\ c 

35. He who loses his life for a Brahman's sake, or on a 
cow's behalf, is freed from the sin of killing a Brahman ; 
so also is he who has saved the life of a Brahman or a cow. 

36. Having regard to the special feature of the sin, 
which may have been incurred by killing a cow, one should 
prescribe the Prajapatya penance. The two forms of expia- 
tion, Krichchhra and Prajapatya, may be divided into four 
grades . 

37. For the first day the rule should be to take only a 
single meal ; for the next day, to eat at night ; for the third 
day, to eat what, unasked, is given to him ; and on the 
fourth day, to live on air. 

38. For two days, to have only a single meal a day ; for 
two days to eat only at night ; for two days, to eat, what, 
unasked, is given to him ; and for two days, to subsist on 

39. For three days to have a single meal a day, for three 
days to eat only at night ; for three days to refrain from 
asking for food ; and for three days, to subsist on air. 

^ d R{ H H -M 1 4) ^Mlsld<^ HI-bdl^H: X° 

40. For four days to have a single meal (a day) ; for four 
days to eat solely at night, for four days to refrain from 
asking for food ; and for four days to subsist on air. 

41. When the penance has been finished, Brahmans should 
have a feast given them ; and a gratuity too is to be given 
them ; and the Brahmans should inaudibly recite the puri- 
ficatory sacred hymns. 

42. The killer of a cow, who has feasted the members of 
the Brahman caste, will undoubtedly be free from sin. 

End of the eighth chapter. 

fay km <r^-tiif < -^i i eM n=i ^ i Rii ^r<^: y? 

41. When the penance has been finished, Brahmans should 
have a feast given them ; and a gratuity too is to be given 
them ; and the Brahmans should inaudibly recite the puri- 
ficatory sacred hymns. 

42. The killer of a cow, who has feasted the members of 
the Brahman caste, will undoubtedly be free from sin. 

End of the eighth chapter. 


Ninth chapter 

Service to cows: 

cT^f cj ^Tct Po|*llr<+>IHI<+>H«J>ci cTSTT ^ 

1. Where cows are confined, or are tied, simply with the 
object of protecting them from harm, no sin arises on the 
death of a cow, whether (the death be caused by) voluntary 
or involuntary action. 

2. If a cow is killed by striking it with an instrument 
larger than a stick, then the expiation for it should be twice 
of what has been detailed hereinbefore. 

M,4>MI< ^til^ ifr TJT^r *R^T ^fej 3 

3. On death from confinement, a quarter of the penance 
is to be performed ; on death from binding, two quarters ; 
on death from tying to a yoke, three quarters ; the entire 
penance, when hitting causes the death. 

4—5. Death in a pasture, or in the house, or in places 
difficult of access, or in rugged and uneven spots, or in rivers, 
seas, and other like places, or at a river's mouth, or at a 
spot where the conflagration of a forest has taken place is 
denominated death by confinement. 


J|lMftnfrHHIi4lfd %T3t qcrfcT cTf^ 

W^TT ^T *f?TT ^Tfq "cTf^ ^dfHMId^l £ 

6—9. Death occurring while a bull is tied to a yoke, 
or with a band round the belly or neck, or with an ornament 
of any kind, whether, in a house or in a wood, would be 
death by binding, whether brought about willfully or not. If 
death should happen while the bull is attached to a plough, 

or to a cart, or oppressively burdened by men on the back, 
then also it is said to be caused by a tie. If a person 
drunk, heedless, or mad, whether conscious or unconscious 
of his act, whether willfully or otherwise, excited with wrath, 
hits the cow with sticks or stones ; and the cow so hit hap- 
pens to be killed, the death is said to be caused by hitting. 

TTftscT: Mfddl ^Tfq c^Hlfar^cl: TTcT 

10. A staff as thick as the thumb, and as long as an 
arm, and which has been recently broken from a tree, is 
fresh, and has the leaves yet upon it, is denominated a 
danda or * stick. A 

MIcTlH <ddHT^ ^TT iHH^dHH. ^ 

11—12. If a bull, hit with a stick, falls down, or 
faints ; then gets up, and walks some five or seven or ten 
steps ; or eats a mouthful ; or drinks a little water ; and then 
dies, there is no sin, and no expiation is needed ; provided the 
bull had been previously afl9.icted with some disease. 

13. If the foetus of a cow is destroyed, while it is in an 
amorphous state, a quarter penance is prescribed for the 
sin; when it has attained some distinct form, then the 
penance should be two quarters ; by destroying a foetus 
which has not yet developed its consciousness, the sinner must 
perform three quarters. 

[Madhava says that there are four states of the foetus in the womb, 
— viz., amorphous, morphous, unconscious, and conscious ; in the 
amorphous, or panda condition, the foetus is but a bubble.] 

TTT^ cj*5|A|J| tp3" foil lei 4>iW-HMHH 

14. In a quarter penance, the rule is to shave the hair 

all over the limbs ; in two quarters, the beard likewise ; in 
three quarters, the shaving is to be of all hair, except the 
coronal lock; but on killing after birth, the shaving includes 
the coronal lock too. 

15. In a quarter penance, the gift to be made is a pair 
of clothes; in two quarters, a vessel made of bronze; in 
three quarters, a bull ; and in the full, a couple of cattle is 
the gift prescribed. 

16. If all the members of the foetus are complete, or if 
it be observed to have consciousness, or fully developed 

in its limbs, large and small — then the sinner must perform 
twice the penance for killing a cow. 

5^Tjf -AdJK iff TTT^t" ^Hld^ \\a 
r^lMI< %5T ^F?f $J ^rWoT iHMIdH ?& 

17—18. If a person has hit a cow with a piece of stone or 
with a stick, — he must perform a quarter penance on break- 
ing a horn; and two quarters on fracturing a bone; on 

injury to an ear, three quaters ; but the penance should be 
full, when death is caused. 

^ffc ^fraf^T ^HI<HI-MMf9rIcf ^ Peloid ^ 

19. On breaking a horn, a bone, or the spine about the 
waist, if the animal lives during the next six months, — 
there is no penance prescribed by law. 

[Madhava says that, in case the animal survives six months, the 
penance prescribed for causing death need not be performed ; but the 
penance for the particular injury must yet be performed.] 


20. On causing a fracture or a wound, the sinner with 

his hand must apply some oily substance to the injured part ; 
fodder also must be given to it, till it is restored to full 

JJl^M ^l^l^lil HH^h^l fa^^d ^ 

21. The man must nurse it, till its entire body is 
rendered whole ; and then, in a Brahman's presence, he is 
to make obeisance to it, and bid it farewell. 

22. If the entire body is not rendered whole again, if the 
body remains injured still, — then half the penance for kill- 
ing a cow is to be prescribed for the sinful man. 

23. If cattle are bound or confined, with a view to pro- 
tect them at night, and if pain is caused, by reason of load- 
ing or unloading the beasts, there is no sin. 

24. If a bull happens to be unduly burnt, on the occa- 
sion of cauterizing an injured part ; or if a bull is loaded 
beyond his strength ; and if he be sent, so loaded, to cross 
a river, or travel over hills, — the following penances are 
prescribed by law : 

25. On an excessive burn, a quarter of the penance ; 

two quarters, in case of an excessive load ; on boring the 
nose of the bullock, and putting a rope through the bore, 
three quarters ; on causing death, the entire penance. 

26. If a reckless person, using force, causes death to 

a cow, with a clod, a piece of wood, or a piece of stone, — 
the following is the penance to be prescribed for him. 

^H-M I fH <-KH <OTf ^TT^T Tft^pt 7T2TT 

27. In case of death being caused by a piece of wood, 

the penance santapana is prescribed by law ; in case of a 
clod, the prajapatya penance ; in case of a piece of stone, 
the tapta krichchhra ; in a case of death being caused by A a 
cutting instrument, atikrichchhra is the penance. 

28. Five cattle are the gratuity in the santapana pen- 
ance ; in the Prajapatya, three cows are prescribed; it is 

eight cows, in the Taptakrichra penance ; thirteen cows in 
the Atikrichchhra . 

... ,. 

29. A On killing an animal, gift of a similar animal should 
be made ; or some price equivalent thereto : this is in con- 
formity to what Manu has said. 

30. If by reason of an excessive burn, a bull should die, 
while tied with the harness ropes, the penance is a single 
quarter, duly performed : so Parasara has said. 

31. There are six causes by which death may be caused ; 
confinement ; bonds ; loading ; hitting ; sending to difficult 
grounds ; and harnessing. 

32. If, while the body of the beast is carefully bound 
with various bonds, the animal happens to die in the house, 
the sinner is bound to perform half the penance prescribed 
for killing a cow. 

33. The ropes for binding cows must not be made of 
cocoanut fibre, nor of flax or hemp, nor of hair, nor of 
munja grass, nor of the bark of a tree, nor of iron chain ; 

should they be unavoidably bound with any such material, 
the owner should be ready with an axe, (to sever the bonds, ) 
should any emergency arise. 

34. The ropes for binding (cattle) should be made of the 
fibres of the husk or the kusa grass ; and while so fastened, 
the beast should have its face turned to the south ; should 
the beast be burnt while fastened with such ropes, there is 
no liability to any penance ade for a religious purpose. 

35. If, however, there be a piece of wood connected 

with the ropes of the above character, the question arises, 
what form of penance is prescribed by law ? In such a case, 
one should recite the Gayatri hymn, the goddess that purifies 
sins, and thereby free himself from the sin. 

jmi^i^i^ fasfkiwd: y I $ I id Tfra-yfTT ^ 

36. If the owner sends his cattle to graze near wells and 
tanks, to grounds where trees are being felled, or if he sells 
them to persons who eat beef, — then he is affected with 
the sin of killing a cow, if death is caused to cattle thus 
dealt with. 

9T3Rf K^t f*TZ *nfr "5TT chM^'chi ^ 
Helped d^WKI^I «HN^ ~$=, 

37 — 38. On the occasion of worshipping a bull, should 

the bull, while being driven to run, (as a part of the ceremony 
of worship) , have his side broken ; or get his ear or heart 
broken or injured, by reason of falling into a well ; or, 
while getting out of the well, get his neck or legs 
injured or broken ; and the animal expire in that state ; — 
in such a case, three quarters of the penance should be 


Ml4l^N H=IM^MI yPtfaxt ^T fora% ^^ 

39. If a cow dies, having, in order to drink water, entered 
a very deep well, or dies on an embankment by a river, or 
on a dyke across a river, or at artificial reservoirs for water- 
ing cattle, — then the owner is liable to no expiation. 

W$m ^IH^IdN ^PTfaxt ^T faciei Xo 

40. No expiation is necessary for the death of a cow in 

a well, or an embankment, or an elongated or a small 

tank, — or in other excavations made for a religious purpose. 

41. But if any one should make an excavation just at the 
door of a house, or at places where the cows usually dwell, or 
within the house for his own purposes, (the object not being 
to win any religious merit, ) — he is liable to an expiation, if 
a cow should expire by falling into it. 

42. If cows, while confined or tied at night, are killed 
by tigers or by snakes, or are burnt to death, or killed by 
lightning, — there is no liability to expiate the sin. 

43. If a village is attacked with flights of arrows, — in 
consequence whereof cows are killed, or if a house tumbles 
down and thereby kills cows, — or if they are killed on 
account of excessive rain, — there is no liability to expiate 
the sin. 

44. For death of cows caused in course of warfare, or 
a conflagration, or the assault of a hostile force, — there is no 
necessity for a penance. 

^f% fJ% fa M £ld M I -4 (art ^ P^^d V* 

45. In a case of difficult parturition, if the cow has to 
be fastened for drawing the foetus out, and the animal 
expires in spite of every care, there is no liability to perform 
a penance. 


46. In binding or in confining cows, if a large number 
dies, by reason of an A error on the cattle doctor's part, 
penance should be directed in such a case. 

TfTcRHrt Pel M-dl ^ <mcM: y^chl ^RT: 


47. When spectators keep aloof, and refrain from giving 
help to cows or bulls in distress they are affected by sin. 

48. When a single cow is killed by many in concert, 

and it is not known whose stroke has actually caused the 
death — then the officers of the king are to subject them all to 
some form of ordeal, to find out the person who really killed 
the cow. 

49. If a single cow has been put to death by many 
persons through a mere accident ; they must each separately 
perform a quarter of the penance for killing a cow. 

W^\ ?T ^ffeR cT^T Bznfq- TPRT: ^ft '^TSRT 
eTTeTT 'WfcT < £fc^ c| J-| -^ N -i!J ct T%^ %o 

50. By seeing the blood, it is inferred that a cow has 

been killed ; leanness shows that disease has been the cause 
of death ; saliva about the teeth betokens the fact that 
the bite of some animal must have caused the death : thus 
is ascertained the fact of natural or violent death. Injuries 
other than death are inferred by facts like this, — that the 
animal is averse to take its food ; or is unable to proceed 
on the way. 

TTTCTTsf ^JlRidl cnTzrycTR ^c|J|-ctj>ftl 

51. Manu, versed in all the branches of learning, has 
prescribed a general penance for killing a cow, where the 
special features of the sin cannot be known. He directs 
that a person killing a cow is to observe the lunar fast. 

52. If a sinner desires to retain his hair, then he must 
perform a double penance ; a double fee is essential for a 
double penance. 

TF^U ^T TOT ^T WT^RTT ^T *T§ ajcT: £3 

53. If the defaulter be a king, or the son of a king, or a 
learned Brahman, — the penance to prescribe in their case 
is, that they may dispense with the shaving of the hair. 

54. For women and virgins, the shaving of the head is 
taken as accomplished when the entire mass of hair is 
raised and the top is clipped to the extent of two fingers' 

"qcf ^TTTT 4>HKRN l>KWl HJJ^H ^dH 

55. As regards a woman, there is no shaving of the head ; 
nor sitting or sleeping at a distance from home ; nor must 
a woman spend the night on the grazing ground ; nor in the 
day-time follow the steps of a cow. 

^"^T^Tt% gI^sU^ ^Tf^STT jihqI^ 

A woman must not rest in the cow pen in night, follow cows in 
daytime, joining of rivers and in forests. 

56. Specially must a woman refrain from following the 
cows, where, to do so would take her to rivers, and conflu- 
ences, and likewise to forest tracts. Women must not wear 

a garment of skin. Thus is penance performed in their 
case : 

ij%5 ^TTTTf Pd y -c& fa Pf-M H H I 4),d. i(q 

57. They should wash at sunrise, sunset, and noon ; 
should also perform the worship of gods ; the penance, 
whether a Krichchhra or a Chandrayana, is performed by 
them, while living in the midst of friends. They are to stay 
in the house, and to perform the penance in a pure spirit. 

^qt TflcTtf ^31 ytsKpJdPH-cisfd 
TFTffcT ^F ^fft cbl<rUH5lHU'i>MH *£ 

58. In this world, if a person, who has been guilty of the 
sin of killing a cow, makes an attempt to conceal the fact, 
undoubtedly he goes to the frightful hell Kalasutra. 

*0 *^» v 

59. Released from that hell, he is born again in the 
mortal world, a feeble and impotent man, leprous and 
wretched, for seven successive existences. 

c. *^ * 

60. Therefore sin should ever be disclosed; and the 
prescribed penance should always be performed. One should 
forswear immoderate wrath towards a woman, a child, a 
cow or a Brahman. 

^fcT MKIi?ft ™T^f ^^cftSv^TPT: 

End of the ninth Chapter. 

?H J l^l J HHUI«4(siT|ol4HH 

1. Now I shall describe the penances while are salutary 

for all the castes. For sexual intercourse with a prohibited 
relation, the penance meet is Chan dray an a. 

2. In the dark half of the month, one must take off from 
his daily food, mouthful by mouthful on each successive 
day ; it should begin in the light half of the month ; on 
the new moon day, there is an absolute fast ; this is the 
rule for the Chan dray an a penance. 

3. Each mouthful is to be made as big as a hen's egg ; 
otherwise, the sinful man would be wanting in good faith, 
and win no religious merit ; so he would not obtain freedom 
from the sin. 

4. Having performed the penance, a feast should be given 

to Brahmans ; a pair of clothes, and a couple of cattle, form 
the fee for the Brahmans, 

5. Should a regenerate man commit adultery with a 
woman of the Chandala or Svapaka caste, he should, by 
order of Brahmans, fast for three successive nights. 

6. And Parasara has declared, that the fee to be given is 
a couple of cows, whereby freedom from the sin is obtained. 
Should a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, cohabit with a woman of 
the Chandala caste, 

7. He is to perform a double Prajapatya, and to pay 

a fee of two couples of cattle, each couple to include a 
female and a male. 

*-- ^s ■■. .- ■■. .- ^ 

8. If a Shoodra commits an act of guilt with a woman 
of the Chandala or Svapaka caste, he must perform the 
prajapatya penance, and give a fee of four couples of cattle, 
each couple to include a female and a male ; 

9. If a person, bereft of all sense, cohabits with his 
mother, or sister, or self-begotten daughter, ho must per- 
form a three-fold Krichchhra penance ; a tire-fold Chan- 
drayana should also be performed ; he must, likewise, cut off 
his male organ. 

-cl I -sU -M-HM <M ^iT^iM^^H ?p3TfcT 

10. On cohabitation with a mother's sister, it is requisite 
to cut off the male organ ; but if it has been done unwit- 
tingly, the sinner must perform a double Chandrayana. He 
must give ten couples of cattle, each couple to consist of a 
female and a male, as fee : this is the expiation as declared 
by Parasara. 

O --3 *"* 

11. On sexual union with a father's wife, or a near re- 
lative of the mother, or a brother's daughter, or the precep- 
tor's wife, a son's wife, or the wife of a brother, or the wife 
of a brother of the mother, or any woman of the same gotra, 

a three-fold Prajapatya is the expiation prescribed ; a couple 
of cattle is the fee to be given. Thus the sinner undoubtedly 
gets rid of his sin. 

rMd<kl"HHI-bdlHlrRIHi cT yid^H 

12. On carnal intercourse with a beast, or a prostitute 

and the like, or with a female buffalo, or with a female camel, 
or with a she monkey, or with a sow, or a female ass, one 
should perform the Prajapatya penance. 

13. On carnal intercourse with a cow, the sin is removed 
by three nights' fast; a cow should be presented to a 
Brahman as fee. On carnal connection with a female 
buffalo, a female camel or an ass, the sin is removed by one 
night ' s fast . 

cs. **> * 

14. On the occasion of a civil commotion, or in a war, 
during a famine, or an epidemic, or when people are being 
carried away as captives of war, or when there is a panic 
(in the land), one should always look after his wife. 

JllJIIJ-fl ^T r^bRUUHcH ^1^1 ^T 
TTf^Jft Wt ^TFft T^\ ifM\"{i;^f^ 1% 

15. If a woman has associated with persons of the Chan- 
dale caste, — then a meeting of not less than ten Brahmans 
should be assembled, and she should proclaim her sin before 

-g\H$ tft^: ^rrfq <^f% ^rr ^h^ 

16. A well should be made, deep enough to sink as far 

as the neck, and full of cow-dung and water and mud ; the 
woman should fast and stay within the well ; and should 
come out at the end of an entire day and night. 

17. She is to shave her head, including even the coronal 
hair; she is to eat unripe barley mixed with water; she is 
to fast for three successive nights, and stay in water for a 
single night. 


?13Rf2T^T PRIORI T^ff <M-!l| fa ***>£} d ^ 

18. She must prepare a decoction with either the root, 

or leaves, or flower or fruit, of the creeping plant called the 
Sankhapushpi, mixed with gold and the five articles derived 
from a cow ; and she is to drink this decoction ; then she 
must live on one meal a day, until she is in menstrua- 
tion . 

19. So long as she performs the penance, she is to dwell 
outside the house ; after the penance has been fully per- 
formed, she should give a feast to Brahmans. For fee 

she should give a couple of cattle. This is the purification 
declared by Manu, the self-existent ' s son. 

>0 CV -O -w *^ 

.._ __ *\ * 

20. For a woman of any one of the four castes, if she is 
guilty of a sexual union with a Chandala, the purification is 
a Chandrayana. As the earth is, so is a woman ; she there- 
fore should not be regarded as wholly unclean. 

TT^^xF ^te^SJ I £1 1 o| c^b>M c| d I ^cj 
oRf ^RfcT d*ll<=lTllo|rtlc|flc| stf^: ^ 

21. If a woman is enjoyed by force, or by putting her in 
terror, or after she has been taken as a prisoner of war ; she 
is to perform the Shantapana penance : the sin is thus re A 
moved, as Parasara has said. 

22. If against her will, a woman has been once enjoyed 

by a wicked man ; she becomes pure by a Prajiipatya, and by 

the flow of blood during her monthly courses. 

ex -o ex *> v N 

23. If a person's wife drinks spirituous liquor, half his 
body becomes polluted by sin ; there can be no expiation for 
him, half whose body has become polluted by sin. But he 
should perform a Krichchra-sdntapana, while all along re- 
citing the Gayatri hymn. 

24. A Krichchhra-santapana consists in eating cow-dung, 
cow's urine, milk, curd, ghee, and water in which kusa 
grass has been dipped, and likewise a fast for a single 
night . 

25. If a woman becomes pregnant b} A her paramour, at 

a time when her husband is dead, or is missing; — she being 
a wicked and a degraded woman, should be carried to the 
territory of a different king, and be abandoned there. 

Mrddl^KU^rHtx^RH f^ffa% ^ 

26. If a Brahman woman, goes away with a paramour, 

she should be regarded as totally lost ; there can be no 
farther intercourse with her. 


27. If a woman, from passion, or senselessness, abandons 
her relatives, her husband and sons, and goes away, she is 
lost, so far as her future life is concerned ; — altogether lost, 
so far as her relations are concerned. 

28. If a woman is struck with a stick or the like on 
account of some mischievous or senseless act, and she gets 
incensed and goes away, and if it be her first offence, — there 
is no objection to her coming back again. 

cTf ^<y) TYk Mlddl" MIMcblPUinH 

29. If she comes back within ten days, there is no 
liability to perform a penance. For ten days, a woman 
should not be given up as lost. But on information that 
she has committed the act of sin, she should be given up 
within ten days. 

30. The husband must perform a Krichchhra penance; 
and the relatives, half a Krichchhra, And those who have 
associated with them in drinking or eating, are purified by 
fasting a day and night. 

31. If a Brahman female goes away, although not accom- 
panied by a paramour, still her relatives must give her up, 
for fear that she may have had, after her departure from the 
house, sexual intercourse with a hundred men. 

32. To whatever house a polluted Brahman woman goes 
in company of a paramour, — whether her husband's, or 
father's, or mother's or paramour's house, — the house itself 
becomes impure by reason of her presence. 

^\^\4\ g^Ri ji-c&^<m^i faciei y* 

^t^t wt ^Tct ^rrfcT ^s^ptrtt 5 j m B-i -ui : 

33. That house should be scraped, and then wetted with 

the five articles derived from a cow ; all the earthen vessels 
should be thrown away; and the clothing and the wood 
should be purified. 

^si 4-uh-m mi "src5f ^m ^r ^Tter%^ 

34. All furniture should be purified in the prescribed 

form ; vessels made with shells of fruit are to be rubbed 
with the hair of the cow ; copper vessels should be purified 
with the five articles derived from a cow, and those of 
white copper by ten times rubbing them with ashes. 

35. A Brahman should perform the penance propounded 

by other Brahmans ; he should give a fee of a couple of 
cattle ; and should perform a double Prajapatya. For the 
others, the purification is a fast for a day and night, and 
swallowing the five articles derived from a cow. 

36. Brahmans and others are purified by fasts, rites, 
ablutions, daily prayers and worship of gods ; by recitation 
of sacred hymns, burnt-offerings, by acts of humanity and 

^T y^Tf^T ^TT^J ^TfR| ^FRH ^T^TT Y^ 

37. The ether, the wind, and the fire, are ever pure ; 

and so is water lying on the ground. The hue a grass, lite 
sacrificial vessels, are not unclean, so long as the rites are 
being performed. 

End of the tenth Chapter. 

^■q-AM ^ 411 U I *\ Isi-d o| 4IIH H 

1. If a Brahman has partaken of any impure food, or 

has swallowed virile seed, or beef, or a Chandala's food, he 
should perform a Krichchhra-chandrayana. 

2. If it be a Kshatriya or a Vaishya, he should perform 
half a Chandrayana. If a Shoodra has committed a sin of 
the above character, he should perform a Prajapatya. 

M$|J|o4J fM^sD ^<*4' PM^Pc^: 
M.cbfopMdJlf ^T ci^ir^yi-iHsbHI^ 3 

3. A Shoodra should swallow the five articles derived from 
a cow ; a regenerate man should drink Brahmakoorccha. 

The fee to be given is one, two, three or four cows, in the 
order of castes, — beginning with the Brahman. 

[Brahmakoorcha will be explained by the author a little further 
on. Verses 27 to 36.] 

4—5. If a Brahman has partaken of a S'lidra's food, or 
the food of a person unclean on account of an impurity of 
birth, or of a person who is unfit to be associated with in the 
matter of food, or any food suspected to be unclean, or 
any prohibited food, or the leavings of what another has 
eaten, and if this be done either with or without knowledge, 
or on account of being in a condition of distress; — the 
Brahman, when he knows, should perform a Kricchra ; and 
.part of the purificatory process is to drink Brahma-kirsch. 

fadCHk'^>: yV'-l ^*-2J% HMW*4?M: 5 

6. If any food has been polluted by being first touched 
with the mouth of children, or by mongooses or cats, — it 
will become pure on being besprinkled with water in which 
sesamum and the kusa grass have been dipped. 

ye** m# ^jm fa y n i fa y HU i w*tr% 

7. When a number of Brahmans have sat down A together, 

in a single row, to eat their food, and of them, even when 
one has left his plate, the others should not be made to eat 
their respective food. 

8. If a Brahman, from ignorance, should partake of the 
food, after it has become unclean, by the rising of one out 
of a row, — then he should perform the Krichchhra penance, 
and likewise the Santapana, 

*S * "V 

o C 


^ I 4i m Vdi 41 m ^ m i ^ ri f^\- 

9—10. If a regenerate man, without knowledge, partakes 

of the milk of a cow that has recently calved, or if he eats 

the white garlic, or the egg-fruit, or the red garlic, or onion, 

or a juicy exudation from a tree, or the property of a god, 

or mushrooms, or the milk of a female camel or a female 

antelope ;- A |y fasting three nights, and eating the five 

articles derived from a cow, he becomes pure. 

^Il^ll foiyu^l i\ TT5T ^|o|cf>HH ^pzrf^ ^ 

11. After knowingly eating the meat of a frog, or of a 
mouse, a Brahman will become pure by taking unripe barley 
as food. 


12. A Kshatriya, or a Vaishya leading a religious life, 
and duly engaged in the ceremonies prescribed for his 

caste, — should on all occasions partake of food in his house, 
whenever a ceremony for the gods or for departed ancestors 
takes place in his house. 

^ cl^f ?T2TT ^TR ^r^f ^%^T Mll^clM, 

13. When a Shoodra gives a feast, a Brahman may eat 

ghee or milk or sesamum oil or any food cooked in some oily 
substance, — provided he goes to the bank of a river to eat it. 

"ct ?R d4^fcy: 3W I <*> fa d <Ud : ^ 

14. If a Shoodra be addicted to flesh meat and spirituous 
drinks, and constantly engaged in low occupations — he, like 
a member of the 8'vajpdha caste, should be shunned by a 
Brahman from afar. 

15. A Brahman should never shun such S'lidras as are 
employed in the service of regenerate men, abstinent of 
spirit and flesh meat, and duly employed in their own 
occupation . 

16—17. If a Brahman unwittingly partakes of food be- 
longing "to one who is unclean on account of impurity 
caused by birth or death,— what should be the expiation A 
having reference to each particular caste? In case of a 
S'lidra's food, unclean on account of impurity by birth, — 
the purification is the recitation of the Gayatri hymn for 
eight thousand times ; — in case of a Vaishya, five thousand 
times ; — in case of a Kshatriya, three thousand times. 

18. If the food of a Brahman be partaken, then the 
recitation should be two thousand times. Or purity may be 
attained by reciting the hymn of the Somaveda, which is 
known under the name of the Rishi Vamadeva. 

19. If dry food or milk, or any oily substance, be 
brought from a S'lidra's house and cooked in a Brahman's 
house, — that may be taken as food : — So Manu has said. 

20. If at a time of distress, a Brahman has eaten in a 
Shoodra's house, he becomes pure by repentance; — or he 
should one hundred times recite the verse of the Veda 
named the Drupada. 

T3^r ^r^r wm ^ruicHH' In^k^d ^ 

21. Among the Shoodras, these are the sub-castes whose 

food it is allowable to partake ; — viz., a Dasa, a Gondola (cow- 
herd) , a Napita (barber) , a Kulamitra, an Ardhashareerin ; and 
also one who delivers himself up. 

22. A person begotten by a Brahman upon a Shoodra 

female, is a Dasa if he has not received the sacrament ; he 
becomes a Napita on receiving the sacrament. 

23. A son begotten by a Kshatriya on a Shoodra female, 

is known" by the name of Gopala ; Banishments undoubtedly 
may partake of his food. 

24. A person begotten by a Brahman on a Vaishya 
female, on receiving the sacrament is known by the name 
of Ardhika ; Brahmans may no doubt partake of his food. 

Tn^rrf^%fcT fnrt *tt^tt WtR ijwi-- ^ 

25 — 26. If among castes, whose food it is not allowable 
to partake, — water, or curd, or ghee, or milk contained in 
any vessel belonging to them, be unwittingly partaken by 
one — what should be the purification ? If a Brahman, or 
a Kshatriya, or a Vaisya, or a Shoodra comes to have an 
answer to the above question, — (then this is the answer) . A 
fast and Brahma kricchra are the purifications for a member 
of any of the four castes. 

4NsU-U.ll' HlMclW: VA I t& sD ^FR ^]'^f^\ 
•slriJoh-^H^I TT5T ^MI^hTm ^TH^RT ^ 

27. But there is no fast prescribed for a Shoodra. He 
becomes pure by making a gift. Brdhmakurchcha together 
with a whole day's fast would purify even a Svapaka. 

28. Urine of the cow, cow-dung, milk, curd, and ghee, 
these five are the five articles derived from a cow. They, 
and water in which the kusa grass has been dipped, — are 
themselves pure, and therefore purify the sin. 

<+>rM<HNI4d TTTff *Tof ct>|frd£|c|o|| 

2 9 — 31. Urine of a black cow ought to be taken; dung 
of a white cow ; milk of a copper-coloured cow ; and curd 
from the milk of a blood-coloured one ; the ghee from the 
milk of a tawny cow ; or all the five may be taken from a 
tawny cow. One pala of urine should be taken ; cow-dung 
as high as half the thumb; seven of milk, and three 
palas of curd ; one pala of ghee ; and one pala of water in 
which kusa grass has been dipped. 

32. The cow's urine should be gathered, with the reci- 
tation of the Gayatri verse ; the cow-dung, with the verse be- 
ginning with the word ' gandhadvaram ; ' the verse for taking 
milk begins with ' Aappyayasva. ' That for curd begins with 

* dadhikravno. ' 

33. The verse to be recited when ghee is taken begins 
with the words, A 8'ulcramasi ; ' that for the water with 
the kusa grass dipped in it begins with the words ' devasya 
tva. ' The five articles derived from a cow, so sanctified by 
the recitation of the rig-veda verses, are to be placed near 
the fire. 

34. The mixture should be agitated with the verse 

' Apohishta, &c. ' ' ; then it should be again sanctified with 
the verse, * Maanastokay ' Not less than seven kusa grasses, 
with their thin ends uncut and intact, and which possess a 
fresh, shining colour like that of a parrot, should be used 
in taking up the mixture, and it should be thus made an 
offering of upon the fire. 

35. The verses to be recited at the time of offering on 
the fire are those beginning respectively with the words, — 
*17'dvaU; ' A Idan vishmi A Manastoke ; A and also the verse 
which has the word * sedum * in it. What remains after the 
offerings on the fire should be drunk by the Brahman. 

36. When being drunk, it should be agitated with the 
recitation of the word * om called the "pranava "; it should 
be churned, and taken up and drunk, each act being accom- 
panied by the recitation of that word. 

-M-^^r^FTct TIFT ^% fcT¥fcT ?J^HIH 3^ 

37. Whatever sin there may lie in the body of embodied 
beings, lurking in the skin or in the bones, — is wholly burnt 
by the ' Brahmakoorchcha ; ' as fuel is burnt by kindled fire. 
For, it is pure in all the three worlds, and gods themselves 
are within it . 

38. The god Varuna is in the urine of the cow ; the 

god of sacrificial fire in the cow-dung ; the god of wind 
in the curd ; the moon in the milk ; and the sun in the 
ghee . 

39. When drinking, should any water issue from the 

mouth and drop into the vessel ; that should be considered 
as not fit to be drunk ; one must perform the Chandrayana 
penance for it. 


nFTfllrt •H^cMU: W^RfcR y^|: 

40—44. If a Brahman sees that the carcase of a dog, a 
jackal, or a monkey has fallen into a well; or that a bone, 
skin, or the like has fallen ; and if he has drunk of the 
polluted water ; or if he sees a corpse has fallen ; or the 
carcase of a crow, or an ordure-eating hog, an ass, a camel, a 
gavaya, an elephant, a peacock, a rhinoceros, a tiger, a bear, or 
a lion ; and if the dead body sinks into the well ; and if water 
of a tank so polluted be drunk ; the expiation will be for all 
the castes, in accordance with the following order. A Brah- 
man becomes pure by three nights' fast ; a Kshatriya by two 
days' fast ; a Vaisya by one day's fast ; and a Shoodra by 
fasting for a night. 

M<MI4>rH4-d^M<MI4><d^M ^ Yi( 

45. If food of one who never cooks for the Visvedevas, 

or of one who habitually eats in another man's house, or of 
one who never cooks for giving food to others, be partaken 
by a Brahman, — he should perform the Chandrayana pen- 
ance . 

46. If gifts are made by one who never cooks to give 
food to others, — they are fruitless, so far as the giver 
is concerned. Both he who gives and he who takes are 
destined to go to hell. 

ciidiuRiii^ki ^r^fr^r rn < -m j 1 1 P-i hi 

47. He,, who having accepted and set up the household 

fire, does not perform the five sacrifices, — the saints declare 

him to be ' a person averse to cook for the sake of others. ' 

48. He, who every day raises in the morning, and, having 
himself performed the five sacrifices, subsists upon another's 
food, — he is the ' person who eats in another's house. ' 

TiWT^qf 7ft f^rm «iRi mR^I^: ^ 

49. He, who being in the householder stage of life, is 
totally devoid of all acts of gift, is declared by saints ac- 
quainted with law, as ' a person who never cooks for others. ' 

sljfafirtWdTal 3k IM : l|RcftR?d: 

^3 -O -O -O -O 

50. Different are the rules for each cyclical age ; the 
Brahmans who observe the religious rules prescribed for the 
particular age, are not deserving of lany censure ; for as the 
age is, so must the Brahmans be. 


*\ * * r\ 

51. If ' hum ' (an exclamation of disrespect) be addressed 
to a Brahman ; or if a superior be addressed with ' thee and 
thou ; ' one should bathe, and fast for the rest of the day ; 
should bow down, and beg pardon. 


52. If one strikes a Brahman even with a wisp of grass, 

or drags him with a piece of cloth thrown round his neck ; 
or wins even a lawsuit against him ; he should bow down 
and beg pardon. 

4|o|J|4c^^l TT5T l3RT5f HdldMld^l ^ 

53. For belabouring with a stick, the expiation is to fast 
an entire day ; for knocking a Brahman down, three nights' 
fast ; if blood is drawn, the penance is atikricchra ; in case 
of inward bleeding, the Krichchhra is the penance. 

54. One performing the Atikrichchhra penance is to sub- 
sist for nine days on as much food as may fill the palms of 
his hands ; and there ought to be a fast for three nights. 
This is called the Atikrichchhra penance. 

u3"b|i£|o|iimHi Ttwt uhmUst% an 

55. When there takes place an intermixture of all the 

sins, the repetition of the Gayatri verse, ten thousand times, 
is the highest form of a purification. 

[The word 'intermixture, ' 'sankara' in the original, seems to 
mean the commission of more than one sin by one person at the 
same time . 1 

r -\ * 

oing 10,000 times gayathri japa will pure. 

End of the eleventh Chapter. 



JS "V _ Cj 

1. After dreaming a bad dream, or vomiting, or shav- 
ing, or sexual intercourse, or contact with smoke from a 
funeral pile, the purification is to wash oneself. 

*|:?1HldJU><Mfa<!H:i "*TTT U'WK^H ^ 

2. For swallowing unwittingly ordure or urine, or any 
food that has had a contact with spirituous liquor, the 
three regenerate castes must again undergo the sacramental 
rites . 

^P*H J^cll ^F§t ^Td^«4? ^dlPi ^T 
Pd o| d^ ViM I dl H I W1-- U'^bk4>4pil 3 

3. In the second performance of the sacramental rites, 
the bearing of a skin garment, the string for the waist, 
the stick, and the ceremony of begging alms — are dispensed 
with . 

4. With a view to purification, If he having swallowed 
ordure or urine, one should perform a Prajapatya ; should 
prepare and drink the five articles derived from a cow ; and 
should bathe : these render him pure. 

y cm m Ph ci d <!iu h i ^ ^jp^Pf^fracr k 

5. What should be the expiation of the offender (Pratya- 
vasita) who tries to kill himself by falling into water, or 
fire, or by falling from a precipice, or by undertaking a 
journey for a suicidal purpose? 

6. The three (inferior) castes are rendered pure by a 
double Prajapatya, by a pilgrimage to holy places, and by a 
gift of ten cows accompanied by a bull. 

•sii^RiwyoiTrmfa cr ^r^rr ^pq^r 

Tft^t <r^\n\\ <^i^ni wN^cTiirsicn^ 

7 — 8. I shall now relate the expiation for a Brahman. 

He must go to a forest, and, at a spot where four roads meet, 

just shave his head, including the coronal lock, and then 

perform a double prajapatya. He is to give a fee of two 

cows. This is the purification prescribed by Parasol. He is 

thereby freed from that sin, and is restored to his Brahman 


JHHlPH MsW-^llH cpir&HlH H-fHNfa: 

9. The learned have declared five kinds of bathing to 
purificatory : the Agneya or fiery bathing, the Varuna or the 
watery bathing, the Brahma or Vedic bathing, the VAyavya 
or windy bathing, and the Divya or the celestial bathing. 

^TFTT ft %fcT ^T ^T^t ^Tq^t TftT^T : <WdH ^° 

. 10 — 11. The Agneya bathing consists in bathing with 
ashes ; the Varuna is plunging into the water ; the Brahma 
consists in reciting the verse ' apohishta, &c. ; ' the Vayavya 
is bathing with the dust raised by the hoof of a cow ; but 
the celestial bathing takes place when one is drenched with, 
rain-water, the rain coming down while the sun is shining. 
This kind of bathing is of equal efficacy with the bathing in 
the river Ganga. 

^TRl ^fF^t f^f TT# ^TT: fqcpr%; ij^ 

<i I ifH d I -W Jl^sPrl <jNldh TTfeT^TTfsFT: ^ 

d^HMMl^^H^c^ll PM^dM-lilH ^ 

12 — 13. When a Brahman is going to bathe, all the 
gods, together with all the groups of the Pitrus, assume an 
airy form, and follow him, being thirsty, and desirous to 
have a drink of water. If the wet garment is wrung, they 
return, their hopes being unfulfilled; therefore, one should 
not wring his wet garment before offering libations of water 
to the Pitrus. 

•ClH <*>Mi o| d **1 1 U4 i] [kid d r M ^1 rcM^HL 

14. If, while offering libations of water to the Pitrus, 
one should place the sesamum seed in contact with the pores A 
at the root of the hair on the body, and should offer liba- 
tions with the seeds so placed, he should thereby be offering 

libations of blood, and impurities to the Pitrus, 

15. If, after bathing, a Brahman shakes his dripping hair, 
or performs Achamana or (sipping water from the palm of his 
hand, ) while yet he is in water, — he is not acceptable to the 
Pitrus and the gods. 

16. If, while performing the rite of Achamana, he has his 
Lead or throat wrapped with cloth, or the posterior hem of 
Lies under-garment is not tucked up, or his coronal lock is not 
tied, or if he is without his sacred thread, he remains impure, 
in spite of the ceremony of Achamana. 

17. When he has come out of the water, he should not 
perform Achamana in such a way that the drops may fall 
upon the water ; nor should he do so while in the water, in 
such a way as to let the drops of water fall upon the land ; 
he should perform it while touching both water and land; 
thereby he becomes pure on the land and in the water. 

W^TT "qt^n ~fcT TFT , g^T I^TFRT}% 

4i mm: mh-imhHiuI fsrcferFT ^ ^ 

18. One should perform Achamana, after bathing, drink- 
ing, sneezing, eating, travelling on the road, and change 
ing his garment, although he may have performed it once 
before . 

19. After sneezing, spitting, touching the teeth, or tell- 
ing a* lie, or holding conversation with sinful men, one 
should touch his right ear. 

W I <H I <\ U cftqffc J|^-I*ll: uRd.W«TT 

20. Fire, water, the gods, the moon, the sun, and the 
wind, all dwell in the right ear of a Brahman. 

^RklMSJ %^TSJ <HlH4H-MfrHcllW2TT 
U^cld fay 4-43(1% fcTFf^T <Rd^l ^ 

21. Bathing in the daytime, while being purified by the 
rays of the sun, is the approved form of bathing. Bathing 
at night is not approved unless when the Rahu is visible 
in the heavens. 

[Z e., when an eclipse of the moon takes place.] 

22. Bathing, making of gifts, austerities, and burnt-offer- 
ings, may be made at night when an eclipse is seen. Night 
otherwise is impure ; therefore night is to be shunned in 
performing rites. 

wt ^rt ^mt "frq": <+><Ml -u^Pi 

23. The Mouths, the Vases, the radars, the Amity's, and 
other deities, all disappear with the moon. Therefore, gifts 
are not proper at night. 

24. At the ceremony on the threshing-floor, at marriage, 
when the sun passes over from one Zodiacal sign to another, 
and during an eclipse, gifts are allowable in the night time ; 
but not allowable in any other case. 

25. Making of gift at night is approved, if a son has 
been born, or at a sacrifice, or on the occasion of an obse- 
quial rite, or when an eclipse is visible ; but not approved in 
any other case. 

... _. 

Wtei ^f% ^rt y^iw Hl^-Kl frf^T ^5 


26. The two praharas or watches in the middle of the 

night are called Mechanistic. During the pradosha, or the first 
watch of the night one may perform bathing, as in the 
day-time . 

Pradosha seems to be the first prahara after sunset.] 

tt^t frm 3 fsrfRT w^r^j ygi&AiH 

27. A tree on a burning-ground, a funeral pile, pus, a 
Chandala, and a seller of the Soma plant ; having touched 
any of these, — a Brahman should plunge into water with his 
clothing on. 

28. Before the gathering of bones, one, having wept, 
should perform the ceremony of bathing. For a Brahman, 
(the gathering bones) should be performed within the tenth 
day Achamana should be performed after it : 

29. When the sun or the moon is seized by rahu, 

[I. e., when a solar or a lunar eclipse takes place], all water 
becomes as pure as the water of the Ganga, so far as bathing 
and giving, and other religious rites are concerned. 

30. Bathing performed with the kusa grass is purifica- 
tory ; a Brahman should makes Achamana with the kusa 
grass ; water taken up with the kusa grass is as holy as a 
drink of the Soma juice 

^R -41 ^d #4 ^iHMH^H '*T%cT 3^ 

31. Those who do not cherish the household fire, who 

are devoid of the daily conjunctional adorations, and who 
do not study the Veda, — they all are declared as S'lidras. 

32. Therefore, for fear of being turned into a Shoodra, 

every Endeavour should be made, particularly by a Brahman, 

to study at least a portion of the Veda, (every day) in case he 

is unable to study the whole. 

33. A Brahman subsisting, upon a S'lidra's food, though 

he be engaged in constant study, in making burnt- offerings, 
and in reciting sacred verses, is not destined for an upward 
course . 

i?KN <UMKW|i-4fcn<MH*<4fHrM!<>|: 

^R^t ^^fKTT ^rrfq 'iRl^t^f ^ f^J% ^ 

34. To eat a Shoodra's food, to associate with him, to sit 
in the same place with, him, and receive knowledge by his 
instruction, would cause degradation even to one who re- 
sembles the kindled fire. 

35. A Brahman who gets his food habitually cooked by 

a Shoodra woman, or has got a Shoodra woman for the matron 
of his house, is shunned by the pitrus and the gods, and 
goes to the hell called Battrava. 

36. If a Brahman fattens himself with the food of a Shoodra 
polluted by the impurity of birth or death, I do not know 
what (vile) animals he will be born (in subsequent lives) . 

37. Twelve times he will be born as a vulture ; ten times 
as a hog ; seven times as a dog ; this is what Manu has 


38. To gain a fee, if a Brahman performs burnt-offer- 
ings, as an officiating priest, on a S'lidra's behalf; A le 
Brahman becomes a Shoodra, and the Shoodra a Brahman. A 

39. If a Brahman sits down, having taken a vow of 

silence, — he should not speak ; if, while eating, he utters 

words, then he should cease to eat that food. 

M$ I Hi ft cJ^JW cR^ L|Rd4^d Yo 

40. When his meal is but half finished, if he drinks 
water in that vessel, (which contains the food ?) — he thereby 
destroys all the virtuous works that he has done for the 
satisfaction of the gods and the Pitrus ; he likewise destroys 
his own soul. 

^ q% <T ^t fTCT: ?Tf^RTT% ^Tef fq%cT 

41. While Brahmans are eating together, if one out of 
them leaves his plate before the others have finished their 
meal, he is a dunce ; he is the worst of sinners ; he is de- 
clared to be the killer of a Brahman. 

42. While the vessels for food still remain in their 
presence, if the Brahmans utter the word of 'farewell,* 

( ' svasti ' in the original), the gods in that case have not 
their hunger appeased ; and the 'pitrus are disappointed. 

[Madhava says that before the vessels of food are washed, the cere 
mony ' svastivachana ' should not take place. This ceremony con 
sists in the utterance of a certain Vedic verse in which the word 

' svasti ' repeatedly occurs. It is preparatory to giving the fee to 


Brahman and bidding him farewell ; ' svasti ' means ' well-being. '] 

*TT5F*w ^r ftigcH wfki cb°ffoi % f^rr: 

^T ^dl^lHHMlPd PKI4»H: fqcTT^TSTT Y^ 

43. One should never take his meal, except after bathing, 
reciting the sacred verses, and making burnt-offerings on 

the fire ; nor should one eat off the reverse side of a leaf ; 
nor at night, without a light. 

?H*Hlc^l ^PTH sf Id M kM I fi-l H £*J ^ 

44. The householder, who is kind, devoted to reflecting 

on virtue and for the good of those whom he has to support, 
and strictly impartial is the most sensible. 

45. With wealth acquired by righteous means, one should 
support himself. He who makes his living by unrighteous 
means, is unworthy to perform duty. 

-*l I -Ml Ml P^d M H <*><M j£IIc*H^-H!H 
^FM^R cT ^t vjf)^rHcfc+>4<Mr^fc«J>d: ^ 

46. A person who preserves his sacred fire, a tawny cow, 

a person engaged in offering a sacrifice, a king, a religious 
mendicant, and the great ocean, — the very sight of these 
purifies one ; therefore one should constantly obtain a sight 
of them. 

^fitf^frfqcTT WT TF5TT %#^T: 

47. One should keep in his house the following things : 
the wood for striking out a sacrificial fire, a black cat, 
sandal-wood, a precious stone, ghee, sesamum seed, a black 
skin, and a goat. 

cTc=%3T < V I J I Ril cl JJ1x|4MRchlR?c1H ^ 

48. A piece of land, upon which may stand, without 

being closely tied, a hundred cows, and a single bull — ten 
times the area of such a field -is called a gocharma (cow's 
hide) of land. 


mfrj ^WilHMk ^<H -M-nRli W^H 

49. By making a gift of a gocharma quantity of land, 
a person is freed from all sins, such as the killing of a 
Brahman, and like other sins, which he may have com- 
mitted, by word of mouth, or in thought, or in deed. 

50. If a gift is made to a person who has a family to 
support, to an indigent person specially to one learned in the 
Veda, — that gift becomes a source of good. 

^Fzfferr < ft su 4si1 fa <m i <m fa £i n d : 

51. A person who wrongfully appropriates land can 
never be pure, although be may excavate tanks, wells, 
reservoirs and the like, and perform a hundred Vajapeya 
and other sacrifices, or may present a crore of cows. 

52. If a woman is in menstruation within eighteen days 

from the last time she was, simple bathing will purify her ; 
if after that period, the saint Ushanas has declared that 
the rule of three nights must be observed. 


53. A person becomes impure by approaching a Handclap, 
a woman in confinement, a woman in menstruation, or a 
degraded sinner, within the distance of a yoke, or two yokes, 
or three yokes, or four yokes, in the reverse order. 

[A yoke is a particular measure of length. ' In the reverse order, ' 
I. A ., the rule of one yoke's length applies to a degraded sinner and 
A o on . ] 

54. If a Brahman comes nearer than the aforesaid 
lengths, he should bathe with his clothing on; if, unwit- 
tingly he comes in contact (with any of them) , he should 
bathe, and then look at the sun. 

55. When his hands exist, if a Brahman, wanting in 
knowledge, drinks water with his mouth plunged into it 

[like a beast], he surely shall be born as a dog (in his next 
birth) . 

Pd^lHI^N ^PJ <sll3K!j) 5lM^4d: 

56—57. If a man, being angry, calls his wife by the 
name of a relation with whom sexual intercourse is prohi- 
bited by law, and if he again desires to treat her as a wife ; 
then he must proclaim his sins in a meeting of Brahmans ; 
he must there say, — ' I have done so, while I was fatigued, 
or angry, or senseless, or hungry, or thirsty, or terrified. ' 
If a Brahman has failed to fulfill a promise of making a gift, 
or a vow of performing a religious rite ; — the expiation is 
three days ' fast . 

58. A He should, at a confluence of great rivers, bathe 
three times, at dawn, noon, and sunset. After completing 
the expiation, be should give away a cow, and feast ten 
Brahmans . 

59. If a Brahman eats the food of a wicked Brahman 
addicted to forbidden deeds, he must observe one day's 
fast, ; . 

60. . Within the same day, he may become pure, if he 

would eat the food of a Brahman who leads a religious life, 
and is versed in the Veda and its branches. 

61. If a person dies in contact with impurities from the I 
upper part of the body or the lower part of the body, or I 

if he dies while not in direct contact with the surface of the 
ground, or if he dies while he was affected with some ring 
purity on account of a relative's birth or death, his line., . 
should perform three Krichchhras, 

[ ' To die not in direct* contact with the surface of the ground ' J 
is the translation of the ' antariksha mrita ' in the original. It \ 
literally means ' dying in the air ' vr ' in a vacant space. ' An 
instance A 
is when a person dies, while lying down on a bedstead.] I 

<$>■<&■* 4 y^cfidlvtl-clH-u!! ?T2TT ^ 

62. A Kricchhra consists in reciting the Gayatri verse/ 
ten thousand times ; or reciting the Pranayama two hundred 
times ; or bathing twelve times in a holy place, without A 
drying the head after each bath ; or in making a pilgrimage 
to a distance of two 'yojanas' (eight kroshas) . 

■^55 ^oA|ikj ^TgT y|4il|i|H^M^H, 

63. If a householder willingly causes the discharge of 

his virile seed otherwise than in sexual intercourse, he should 
recite the Gayathri verse one thousand times, and should 
perform three Pranayamas. 

IV?1^ cftsfcrm ^^s^ch y<*>RH-MH 

^T^ST: <*>IHc1: =MRd= UfIcH: «rf5T ^ 

64. A Brahman, versed in the four Vedas, should in a 
proper form, propound, by way of expiation for killing a 
Brahman, a visit to the dyke on the sea (constructed by 
sethu near Cape Comorian) 

65. The sinner, staying at the spot where the dyke was 
made, must live by begging from the four castes ; must 
shun persons of wicked deeds; and must not use an umbrella, 
nor wear shoes. 

66. He is to proclaim himself thus : — " I am a sinner ; 

I have committed a heinous sin ; I have killed a Brahman ; 
I am standing at the door of the house, with the expectation 
of getting some alms." 

d 4pm coi i r^ch4^i^^iMMr^cir^ r d: 

W? ^t^ch 4-|l ^T H^NM++K+: ^S 

67. He should likewise dwell in the midst of cows, with- 

in villages or cities ; or in places of hermitage, or of pil- 
grimage ; or near the sources of rivers. 

jiSf*An fdailH f^raTaff ^^IHM+: 

68 — 69. At these, he is to proclaim his sin. By visiting 
the holy sea, extended over a breadth of ten yojanas, and 
over a length of one hundred yojanas, and piled up with the 
dyke constructed by the monkey Nala at the command of 
Ramachandra, and by looking at the dyke, one is freed from 
the sin of killing a Brahman. 

^IH^^HHir<yHd^<MUi^dH ^° 

70. His soul being purified by a sight of the sea, he 
should plunge into the sea. Or if he be a king, ruling a 
territory, he should perform a horse-sacrifice. 

TTcf ^|T fa^£lcHI ccloHllsMUMRH. ^ 

71 . Coming back, he reaches his house for dwelling there, 
with his sons and his servants, where he is to give a feast 
to the Brahman s, and he is to give a fee of one hundred 
cows to such Brahmans as are proficient in the four Vedas . 

72. The killer of a Brahman is freed from his sin, if the 

Brahmans are prepared to give him a solution. 

[This seems to imply, that if the Brahmans are satisfied that his 
expiation has been properly performed, and express an opinion to 
that effect, the sinner is freed from the sin.] 

73. The visit to the Setubandha has been declared to be 
the form of expiation proper for a person whose residence 
is to the north of the Vindhya hill. This is the opinion of 

74. For killing a woman, engaged in performing a religi- 
ous sacrifice, the same expiation, which is prescribed for 
killing a Brahman, must be undergone. 

75. A Brahman who has drunk wine must go to a river 
that falls into the sea; he must perform a Chandrayana, 
which being finished, he is to give a feast to the Brahmans, 
and by way of a fee, he is to give a cow and a bull to the 
Brahmans . 

76. If a Brahman has drunk wine only once, he must 

drink flaming hot spirituous liquor ; thereby he will purify 
himself, both as regards this world, and as regards the other 

77. If gold belonging to a Brahman be stolen by one, he 

is to take a pestle in his hand, and of his- own accord to 
come before the king, in order that the king may kill him. 

J|-c&-H<rMHKI i kMI* 3 lRt ^TF7?T 

78. If he is let off by the king, or if he is killed, — in 
either case, he is freed from the sin. If the theft has been 
willingly committed, it is then that he is fit to be killed 

79. As a drop of oil spreads over the water, — so is sin 
transmitted from one person to another, by reason of sitting, 
sleeping, travelling, talking, and eating together with a 
sinner . 

^'sMHPd ft MIMlPH rldfi|^Rc||«TftT 
^l^l-M-lli <4|c|c+> ?T ddlM^hM ^ ^ 

80. The chandrayana penance, the eating of unripe bar- 
ley, the form of making a gift, called the Tulapurusha, [I, e., 
making a gift of such a quantity of any substance as is 

equal in weight to a male human being] , and the act of 
walking behind cows, — these put an end to all kinds of sin. 

81. This compilation of the ordinances of law, consist- 
ing of five hundred and ninety-two slokas, is the work of 

82. In accordance with the rules for studying (similar 
works), these institutes of law should be carefully studied, 
without fail, by a person who desires to go to heaven. 

Must be read sincerely who wish to attain Swarga! 

End of the Twelfth Chapter. 

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